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Linfield Libraries Encyclopedias and Reference

Encyclopedias and Reference

Art & Music
Biology and Chemistry
Business and Economics
Countries, Cultures and Diversity
Gender Studies
General Reference
Health, Medicine, & Sport
Language and Literature
Math and Physics
Philosophy and Religion
Political Science & Law
Sociology and Anthropology

Countries, Cultures and Diversity

Countries    Culture    Diversity    Websites   


  • Cultural Sociology of the Middle East
    Presents concise information on regions the most likely to be "foreign" to U.S. students in order to convey what daily life is actually like for people in these selected regions. (2012)
  • Encyclopedia of Modern Asia Gale
    Survey of modern Asia, defined as extending from Japan in the east to Turkey in the west, and from Kazakhstan in the north to Indonesia in the south. Covers such subjects as countries, cities, regions, natural features, religions, social issues, languages, people, events, customs, politics, and economics (2003)
  • India Today
    Containing almost 250 entries written by scholars from around the world, this resource provides current, accurate, and useful information on the politics, economics, society, and cultures of India since 1947. (2011)
  • New Encyclopedia of Africa Gale
    Addresses the entire history of African cultures from the pharaohs and the ancient civilizations of the south through the colonial era to the emergence of 53 independent countries, some of them newly emergent in world commerce and others deep in conflict. (2007)
  • Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life
    Covers cultural groups in Asia, Europe, the Americas and Africa. Each volume is organized by continent, covering history, politics, customs, religion, education, human rights issues, teen life, and more. (2017)
  • Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations Gale
    Entries discuss a variety of topics in detail, from banking and securities to climate, from government data to demographic statistics. Also includes biographical essays on national leaders. (2012)


  • Ancestry & Ethnicity in America Gale
    Provides a detailed look at the ethnic makeup of the United States. Over 200 ethnic groups are profiled including 106 ancestry groups, 25 groups by Hispanic origin and 5 major race groups further divided by 82 subgroups by country, tribe, or Hispanic identification. (2012)
  • Encyclopedia of Food and Culture Gale
    Survey of food and its place in human culture and society. Features multidisciplinary coverage of such topics as comfort food, ethnicity and food, medieval banquets, and nutrient composition, among many others. (2004)
  • Encyclopedia of Meso American Culture Oxford
    Encompassing the great civilizations of the pre-Columbian era (including the Olmec, Aztec, and Maya peoples) up through the colonial and postcolonial periods, the Encyclopedia covers art, archaeology, religious studies, anthropology, and history. (2006)
  • Food Cultures of the World Gale
    Introduces food culture from numerous countries and cultures around the world, including some from remote and unexpected peoples and places. (2011)
  • Irish Americans: History and Culture of a People Gale
    This work explores why the Irish came to America, where they settled, and how their distinctive Irish-American identity was formed. It covers everyday life for Irish-Americans as they have assimilated, established communities, and interacted with other ethnic groups in four themes: Irish-American emigration; political and economic life; cultural and religious life; and literature, the arts, and popular culture. included are profiles (2015)
  • Street Food Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture G
    In this encyclopedia, two experienced world travelers and numerous contributors provide a worldwide survey of street foods and recipes to document the importance of casual cuisine to every culture, covering everything from dumplings to hot dogs and kebabs to tacos.(20130


  • American Indian Identity: Citizenship, Membership, Blood Gale
    This book examines the complexities associated with Indian identity in North America, including the various social, political, and legal issues impacting Indian expression in different periods; the European influence on how self-governing tribal communities define the rights of citizenship within their own communities; and the effect of Indian mascots, Thanksgiving, and other cultural appropriations taking place within American society on the Indian community. (2016)
  • Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619 to 1895 Oxford
    Documents the full range of the African American experience during that period and shows how all aspects of American culture, history, and national identity have been profoundly influenced by the experience of African Americans. (2006)
  • Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes Gale
    Covers tribes from all over the United States and Canada, including small tribes and some that no longer exist. Gives detailed yet accessible information on history, religion, art, government, economy, daily life and current social and political issues. (2008)
  • Encyclopedia of Race and Racism Gale
    Examines the anthropological, sociological, historical, economic, and scientific theories of race and racism in the modem era. Delves into the historic origins of ideas of race and racism and explores their social and scientific consequences. Includes biographies of significant theorists, as well as political and social leaders and notorious racists.
  • Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America
    This work includes 23 new ethnic groups and contains 152 revised ethnic entries on specific minority groups in the U.S., with an emphasis on culture (religions, holidays, customs, language) in addition to information on historical background and settlement patterns. (2013)


  • Country Studies and Area Hand Books Library of Congress
    Prepared by the Federal Research Division, each country report includes information on politics, economy, social and national security systems and institutions and how they are shaped by cultural factors.
  • World Fact Book
    Provides brief factual and statistical summaries of countries worldwide.

Related Resources

  • CQ Researcher
    Explores current social and political issues from the news with Congressional Quarterly objectivity and balance, 1991- present.

  • Gale Virtual Reference Library Gale
    All Gale Encyclopedia and Reference resources in one search.

  • Goddesses in World Culture
    From classical Greek heroines to female archetypes in today's video games, from Native American divinities to Asian goddesses immortalized through landscape references, goddesses and their stories inform our history and fill our folklore.