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Hazard Communication Program

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Table of Contents

  1. The HazCom Rule
  2. Written HazCom Program
  3. How to Obtain Information
  4. Detecting Chemical Hazards
  5. Hazards of the Chemicals
  6. Effects of the Exposure
  7. Physical Hazards
  8. Protective Measures


Program Training Requirements

Appendices

  1. Glossary of Terms
  2. How to Use an MSDS

1. The Hazard Communication Rule, Oregon Administrative Rule (OAR) Chapter 437, Hazard Communication (1910.1200)

A. The Purpose of the Rule.

Chemicals are a part of our lives. Modern life would be impossible without chemicals. Plastics, drugs, and miracle fibers are just a few of the things that use chemicals in their manufacture. But chemicals have to be treated with respect, too. Many can cause injury or illness if not handled properly. That is why the federal government and the State of Oregon decided to set a uniform hazard communication standard.

The purpose of the Linfield College Hazard Communication program is to inform workers of the hazards of the chemical materials they work with so they can make intelligent decisions about the Procedures, Practices, and Personal Protective Equipment they can use to protect themselves.

B. What it Requires.

The OR-OSHA Section 1910.1200(h) on "Employee information and training" reads as follows:

(h) "Employee information and training."

(1) Employers shall provide employees with effective information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of their initial assignment, and whenever a new physical or health hazard the employees have not previously been trained about is introduced into their work area. Information and training may be designed to cover categories of hazards (e.g., flammability, carcinogenicity) or specific chemicals. Chemical-specific information must always be available through labels and material safety data sheets.

(2) "Information." Employees shall be informed of:

{i} The requirements of this section;

{ii} Any operations in their work area where hazardous chemicals are present; and,

{iii} The location and availability of the written hazard communication program, including the required list(s) of hazardous chemicals, and material safety data sheets required by this section.

(3) "Training." Employee training shall include at least:

{i} Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical in the work area (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals when being released, etc.);

{ii}The physical and health hazards of the chemicals in the work area;

{iii} The measures employees can take to protect themselves from these hazards, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used; and,

{iv} The details of the hazard communication program developed by the employer, including an explanation of the labeling system and the material safety data sheet, and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information.

 

2. Written Hazard Communication Program.

A. Location.

A copy of the program is in the Campus Safety Office located at the McMinnville and Portland Campus.

B. Availability.

A copy of the program is readily available upon request from the safety director.

C. Required Lists of Hazardous Chemicals.

A list is available on request from the safety director.

D. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).

The Safety Director will be responsible for obtaining and maintaining the data sheet system for Linfield College. He will review incoming data sheets for new and significant health/safety information and will see that any new information is passed on to the affected employees.

Copies of MSDSs for all hazardous chemicals to which employees of that department and section may be exposed will be kept in a location within the department and sections.

MSDSs will be available to all employees for review during each work shift. Copies will be available upon request to the department or section head.

E. Labeling System.

All employees will verify that all original containers received for use by Linfield College will:

- Be clearly labeled as to the contents.

- Note the appropriate hazard warning and consult with the  safety engineer if there are any questions.

- List the name and address of the manufacturer.

The supervisor in each area will ensure that all secondary containers with chemicals not dispensed and used by the same person are clearly labeled with either an extra copy of the original manufacturer's label or with hand lettered cardboard wire tie labels which have been marked with :

1. Label name from the primary container.

2. Hazard warning.

For help in labeling, see the safety engineer. The safety director will review the labeling system every year and update as required.

F. Employee Training and Information

The Hazard Communication Rule, Oregon Administrative Rule (OAR) Chapter 437, Hazard Communication (1910.1200) covers the requirements for all phases of hazard communication, including training.

Training Required

The Linfield College Safety Department shall provide employees with information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of their initial assignment, and whenever a new hazard is introduced into their work area. Such information and training shall be tailored to the types of hazards to which the employees will be exposed.

Information

Employees shall be informed of:

 

(a) The requirements of the OR-OSHA Hazard Communication Information and Training section

(b) Any operation in their work area where hazardous chemicals are present; and,

(c) The location and availability of the written hazard communication program, including the required list(s) of hazardous chemicals, and material safety data sheets required by OR-OSHA regulations.

(d) Chemicals present in their workplaces and the hazards associated with each chemical.

Training

Employee training shall include at least:

(a) Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical in the work area (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals when being released, etc.);

(b) The physical and health hazards of the chemicals in the work area including the likely physical symptoms or effects of overexposure;

(c) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from these hazards, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used; and,

(d) The details of the hazard communication program developed by the employer, including an explanation of the labeling system and the material safety data sheet, and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information.


Information. Prior to a new hazardous chemical being introduced into any department and section of Linfield College, each employee of that department and section will be given information as outlined in this program above with regard to that chemical. The department and section is responsible for ensuring that MSDSs for the new chemical(s) are available.

Safety meetings held by each department and section will include information relative to Hazardous Materials used in the department and section. Attendance at safety meeting is mandatory, in accordance with Linfield College policy.

Notices providing an explanation of the department and section container labeling system and the locations of this written Hazard Communication Program shall be posted on all employee bulletin boards.

G. Hazardous Non-routine Tasks

Periodically, employees are required to perform hazardous non-routine tasks. Prior to starting work on such projects, each affected employee will be given information by the supervisor about hazards involving hazardous chemicals to which they may be exposed during such activity.

This information will include:

  • Specific chemical hazards
  • Protective/Safety measures the employee can take to protect themselves
  • Measures the department has taken to lessen the hazards including ventilation, respirators, the presence of another employee, and emergency procedures.

H. Chemical in Unlabeled Pipes

Work activities may be performed by employees in areas where chemicals may be run through unlabeled piping.

Prior to starting work in any such areas, the employee shall contact the Physical Plant Director for information regarding:

  • The chemical in the piping.
  • The hazard or potential hazard from any chemical contained in the piping
  • Safety precautions which should be taken.

I. Informing Contractors.

It is the responsibility of the departments and sections to provide contractors and their employees with the following information:

  • Hazardous chemicals to which they may be exposed while on the job site at Linfield College.
  • Measures that employees may take to lessen the possibility of exposure.
  • Steps the department has taken to lessen the risks.
  • MSDSs for all hazardous chemicals are on file in the department or that they may be obtained by simple request through the Safety Department.
  • Procedures to follow if they are exposed.

The Physical Plant Director will coordinate with the contractor's assigned safety officer to ensure the contractor's employees are given the information prior to entering the work site.

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3. How to obtain and use appropriate hazard information.

Information is the heart of the Hazard Communication Program. Much useful information about chemicals in our workplace is available. This data has been researched by the companies that make or import these chemicals and this information is available on two useful tools; A) Container labels, and B) Material Safety Data Sheets.

A. Container Labels.

Check each container entering your workplace for appropriate labeling. Chemical manufacturers, importers, and distributors must be sure that each container of hazardous chemicals they ship or sell is labeled, tagged or marked with the identity of the hazardous chemical(s); the appropriate hazard warnings; and the name and address of the chemical manufacturer, importer or other responsible party.

The actual format will differ from company to company but the labels must contain similar types of information. That makes it easy to find out at a glance about the chemical's possible hazards, and the basic steps you can take to protect yourself against those risks.

Before you move, handle or open a chemical container, read the label and follow the instruction. If you are not sure about something, ask your supervisor, before you act.

In the workplace, containers into which hazardous chemicals are transferred must be labeled, tagged, or marked with the identity of the hazardous chemical(s) and appropriate hazard warnings.

The identity may be any chemical or common name which is indicated on the MSDS and will permit cross-references to be made among the list of hazardous chemicals, the label, and the MSDS.

The label may use words or symbols to tell you;

  • The name of the chemical.
  • The name, address, and emergency phone number of the company that made or imported the chemical.
  • The physical hazards (will it explode, catch fire, etc.).
  • Any important storing or handling instructions.
  • The health hazards. (Is it toxic, does it cause cancer, is it an irritant, etc.)
  • The basic protective clothing, equipment, and procedures that are recommended when working with this chemical.

The hazard warning must convey the hazard of the chemical. This is intended to be specific information regarding the hazard; the specific hazards indicated in the Rule's definitions for "physical" and "health" hazards would be appropriate. Phrases such as "caution", "danger", or "harmful if inhaled", generally do not meet the intent of the Rule by themselves. The definition of "hazard warning" states that the warning must convey the hazard of the chemical. If, when inhaled, the chemical causes lung damage, then that is the appropriated warning.

Lung damage is the hazard, not inhalation. There are some situations where the specific target organ effect is not known. Where this is the case, the more general warning statement would be permitted.

There are some instances when alternatives to in-house container labeling are acceptable:

  • You may post signs that convey the hazard information if there are stationary containers with similar contents and hazards in the same work area.
  • Various written standard operating procedures, process sheets, batch tickets, blend tickets and similar materials may be substituted for labels on stationary process equipment if they contain the same information as a label and are readily available to employees in the work area.
  • You are not required to label portable containers into which hazardous chemicals are transferred from labeled containers and which are intended only for immediate use by the employee who makes the transfer. This is what the Rule means when it refers to "immediate use".
  • You are not required to label pipes or piping systems.

B. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

This basic hazard communication tool gives details on chemical and physical dangers, safety procedures, and emergency response techniques. Everything that is known about the chemical is in the MSDS.

Check each MSDS you receive. The Hazard Communication Rule specifies the minimum information that an MSDS must contain. There should not be any blank information items on the MSDS. If information is not available or if particular lines of information do not apply to the chemical, that must be indicated on the lines.

An MSDS provided by OSHA is used as an example on the following pages. Use this form with MSDS checklist to familiarize yourself with this MSDS. The circled numbers on the form refer to items on the checklist.

Note that items on the checklist do not always match the headings on the MSDS. Since there is no standard or uniform format, you will receive many different types of data sheets. No matter what format is used, every MSDS musty contain the items of information on this checklist, and it must be presented clearly. If you receive an incomplete MSDS, request a complete one from the manufacturer or supplier.

The OSHA Form 174 data sheet used as an example meets the Hazard Communication Rule's requirements;


Material Safety Data Sheet Checklist

MSDS Content: Hazard communication rules require that 12 different information items be included on an MSDS. All 12 must be addressed in some manner, since no omissions are allowed. If some information is unknown or not applicable, it must be stated. All MSDSs must be provided in English, while the use of other languages is optional. Mandatory items are:

  1. Identity of chemicals presenting physical or chemical hazards. This identification may be exempted depending on trade secret provisions. The chemical name is required on the MSDS, and the MSDS and label must be referencable.

    Note: This includes all hazardous ingredients which comprise 1 percent or greater of the composition, except for chemicals identified as carcinogens, which must be listed if the concentrations are 0.1% or greater. Any chemical ingredient, even if less than 1% of a mixture (or less than 0.1% for a carcinogen), must be listed in the MSDS if there is evidence that the ingredient(s) could be released from the mixture in concentrations which would exceed established "acceptable" exposure limits or if the ingredients(s) could present a health hazard to employees.
  2. Physical and chemical characteristics, such as vapor pressure, flash-point, and chemical solubility.
  3. Physical hazards, such as reactivity, explosibility, and fire potential.
  4. Health hazards, including signs and symptoms of illness, and medical conditions which might be aggravated by exposure.
  5. Primary routes of chemical entry into the body.
  6. Permissible exposure limits published and/or recommended for the chemical. OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) and other applicable limits.
  7. Whether the chemical is listed as a carcinogen.
  8. Precautions necessary for safe use.
  9. Known control measures, including engineering, work practices, and personal protective equipment necessary to protect against the hazards.
  10. Emergency and first aid procedures.
  11. Date of MSDS preparation or the date of last change in contents.
  12. Name, address, and phone number of the person responsible for the MSDS.
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4. Detecting Chemical Hazards.

In spite of all the precautions taken, there is a potential for release or spill of a hazardous chemical in the work area.

It is imperative that all workers be familiar with the chemicals they work with. If any questions exist as to the recognition of the chemical they are working with or its odor, this information is given in the "Physical/Chemical Characteristics" section, (Section 3), of the MSDS.

Signs and symptoms of exposure to specific chemicals are also included in the MSDS under "Health Hazard Data", (Section 6).

If at any time, while working with or around chemicals, you observe vapors, mists, puddlings of liquids, or dusts or fumes from unknown origin you should use caution and avoid contact until the origin of the substance is determined to be safe.

Odors of chemicals are sometimes easily recognizable but cannot always be depended upon. Cyanide gas, for instance, has the pleasant smell of almonds, yet is quite deadly. Other toxic gases have no odor. However, if you detect any odor that is not standard for the area you are working in, or is unrecognizable, you should leave the area until it is determined to be safe.

Exposure to hazardous or toxic substances can result in a multiplicity of symptoms, such as: eye irritation, nausea, dizziness, headaches, or skin rashes. If any unusual physical symptoms occur during work around any chemical, the worker should immediately leave the area and notify his/her supervisor. The work area should remain clear until it is determined to be safe.

In all the above cases (seeing, smelling, or being affected by chemicals) workers should first leave the area and then contact their supervisor.

Recognition of Chemicals

Chemical materials occur as Solids, Liquids, or Gases. The form they occur in, has a lot to do with the possibility for exposure, the way they enter the body and the type of damage they may do.

The main type of chemical contaminants are as follows:

Vapors are airborne solvents that result from the evaporation of solvent based products. The main route of exposure is inhalation. Skin contact is the main route of exposure for solvents in their liquid form.

Dusts are small particles of solids that are usually make from some form of cutting, grinding, sawing, chipping or sanding that reduces the solid to small sized particles. Dusts are an inhalation hazard.

Mists are chemicals suspended in water droplets. Spraying of materials that have a water base atomize the product and produce a fine mist. Inhalation is the main route of exposure for mists, although they can also be involved with skin contact.

Fumes are the small particulates of metals that result from welding or torch cutting. The visible "smoke" from these operations does include smoke but is made up largely of metals that have evaporated. The main route of exposure for fumes is inhalation. Because they are so small, they can go deep in the lungs and therefore, are more dangerous than dusts of the same metals.

Gases are materials that occur in their normal state as a gas. Gases come compressed in cylinders and also occur from a large number of industrial operations. The main route of exposure is inhalation.

There are many ways to recognize hazards in the work place. Some are well known, such as Asbestos, Benzene, Lead, and Chlorinated Solvents. Other hazards are recognizable to the average worker by the reaction they get to their own senses. Chemicals that irritate the eyes, nose and throat are easy to recognize in the work place. Chemicals that cause workers to become dizzy or nauseous are also an indicator of problems.

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5.Hazards of the Chemicals.

The true purpose of Hazard Communication is to relate to workers, hazards of the materials they work with, so they can make informed choices about how to use those materials.

The hazards may include both Physical and Health hazards.

Chemical Hazards

Chemical compounds in the form of liquids, gases, vapors, mists, dusts, and fumes may cause problems by inhalation (breathing), by absorption (through direct contact with skin), or by ingestion (eating or drinking).

Inhalation of Particles and Fibers

Inhalation of dusts, fumes, or mists can result in occupational illnesses ranging from minor irritation to conditions such as silicosis, severe irritation, systemic poisoning, and metal fume fever.

Inert particles such as ordinary dust, oil and ink mists, or concrete dust may cause discomfort and minor irritation at nominal concentrations (<10 mg/M3) generally without permanent injury. The inhalation of particles and fibers from materials such as welding fumes and silica may lead to serious conditions such as cancer and silicosis. Asbestos is a restricted material and asbestos-free insulating material should be utilized when insulation is being replaced or installed.

Inhalation of Gases and Vapors

Many gases and vapors, when inhaled, may cause serious acute or chronic effects. Gases and vapors of industrial hygiene concern are described below:

Asphyxiants

Asphyxiants are physiologically inert gases that act by diluting the oxygen in the air to less than 19.5%. Oxygen levels less than 19.5% require evacuation of the area or use of air-supplied respirators. Some common asphyxiants that may be encountered are:

  • Helium
  • Hydrogen
  • Argon
  • Natural gas
  • Nitrogen
  • Acetylene
  • Methane
  • Carbon Dioxide

Chemical asphyxiants are those that combine with the hemoglobin of the blood to prevent sufficient blood oxygenation. A common example of a chemical asphyxiant is carbon monoxide which has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) of 35 ppm.

Respiratory System Irritants, Anesthetics, and Systemic Poisons

Respiratory system irritants have a corrosive effect on the lining of the respiratory system, and influence the mucous surfaces. The concentration of the fume, vapor, or gas is of greater significance than the length of exposure. Irritants also affect the skin and eyes. Respiratory system anesthetics cause loss of the sense of smell, with unconsciousness and death possible, due to the false sense of security resulting from the lack of any noticeable odor. Some anesthetics injure body organs such as the liver and kidney. Systemic poisons in the respiratory system injure the visceral organs such as the liver, spleen, and kidney. The nervous system may also be damaged.

Chemical irritation, inflammation, ulceration, etc., in the upper respiratory tract may result from exposure to acid mists, alkali mists, and other irritating chemical dusts. Sodium chloride dust may be considered an irritant.

Fumes from welding, brazing, or burning may cause health problems ranging from minor irritation to metal fume fever and systemic poisoning.

Systemic poisoning may result from improperly controlled cadmium fume inhalation from silver soldering. Metal fume fever may result from welding or burning zinc or copper bearing materials.

To assist the first line supervisor in recognizing potentially dangerous concentration of toxic vapors and gases, approximate odor thresholds of common chemicals in air versus TWAs are specified in the following table.

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Approximate Odor Thresholds of Common Chemicals in Air Versus Permissible Exposure Limit û

ûFrom Department of Energy/WIPP Industrial Hygiene Section of the WIPP Safety Manual.

Health Hazards

Health hazards are those which cause cancer, are toxic or highly toxic (they affect body organs or systems), they affect reproduction, they are irritants, corrosives (chemicals that can destroy tissue) and materials which can damage the eyes, nose, throat and lungs, mucous membranes and/or the skin. Almost every chemical typically used in industry has the Potential to be a health hazard.

"Health Hazard" is defined by the State of Oregon as: A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term 'health hazard' includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatoxins, nephrotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

Health hazards include, but are not limited to, any chemicals which meet any of the following definitions:

 

1) Hazardous Chemicals.

a. Substances regulated by OR-OSHA or OSHA.

b. Substances listed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (Threshold Limit Values, TLV).

2) Carcinogen.

A chemical or material that is categorized as being a confirmed or suspected as a cancer causing agent.

3) Irritant.

A material which causes reversible inflammatory effects on living tissue. Thus the exposed skin heals following exposure.

4) Corrosive.

A Material that causes visible destruction or irreversible damage on living tissue. That is, the skin does not completely heal following exposure.

5) Sensitizer.

A material that causes a substantial proportion of humans to develop an allergic reaction in normal issue after repeated exposure to the chemical.

6) Target Organ Effects.

The workplace can have a large range of potential hazards that the employer must consider. Examples of chemical toxicities include effects on the liver, nerves, kidney, blood/hematopoietic and reproductive systems, lungs, skin, and eyes. Target organ effects may be used to indicate whether a material is hazardous.

The biggest problem with average workers understanding health hazards is the "immediacy of the hazard".

A fire or explosion has immediate damage. An unguarded piece of machinery is easily recognized as being dangerous. Daily chemical exposures do damage a little bit at a time. It is difficult, at best, for most people to realize the hazards of the chemicals they are working with today will not appear for 10 to 20 years from now.

The situation is similar to smoking. Most people that start smoking when they are 20 years old do not think or worry about the consequences of 40 years worth of smoking damage by the time they are 60.

The real goal of an effective Hazard Communication Program is to get people to realize the hazards so they can work safely and help to protect themselves over a working lifetime.

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6. Effects of Exposure

There are two types of effects from chemical exposure; Short Term or Acute, and, Long Term or Chronic.

Acute effects of exposure are those that happen quickly and normally right after exposure to the hazard. Inhalation of high concentrations of a solvent may make one dizzy, or, splashing a chemical in the eye can burn the eye. These are acute effects; they happen as soon as the exposure does.

Chronic effects are those that occur over time from continuous or ongoing high exposure. Daily skin contact with solvents will result in drying and defatting of the skin. Chronic dermatitis is the skin disorder that results from continuous exposure. Daily or routine inhalation of organic vapors from hydrocarbon based chemicals above safe limits, may result in chronic liver and kidney damage.

There are four ways that chemicals can usually get into the body. These are called routes of exposure. They are skin contact, eye contact, breathing chemicals in, or inhalation, and swallowing the chemical, or ingestion.

Eye contact usually results in some irritation or stinging of the eye. More concentrated chemicals can burn the eye and some acids can cause blurred vision or even loss of sight from eye contact.

Skin Contact is the most likely form of exposure for many chemicals. Solvents, treatment chemicals, and many other harmful chemicals can easily contact the skin if proper gloves are not worn. The contact can do damage by itself in terms of drying out the skin. Some chemicals will cause an allergic type of rash called sensitization. This type of reaction is like that for poison ivy. Some people do not react and then they suddenly do. They will usually react from that point forward, each time that they contact this material.

A more potentially dangerous result of skin contact is skin absorption. Some chemicals will penetrate the skin and be absorbed into the blood. Others will enter the body through cuts or damage done to the skin by repeated contact with chemicals. This is a very important form of exposure that can lead to serious effects.

Electra-Clean is a good example of a skin contact agent. It not only dries and defats the skin, but chemical agents in it are absorbed through the skin and into the bloodstream and can affect target organs.

Inhalation is the most likely way that chemicals enter the body. Chemicals in the air are easily breathed into the lungs. They may damage the lung or enter the blood and travel through the body, where they damage a particular organ like the liver or kidneys. These damage "sites" for chemicals are called target organs.

Ingestion is normally an unlikely form of exposure. It is very difficult to swallow chemicals based on most industrial operations. When ingestion occurs, it is normally the result of an accident, such as siphoning gas from a vehicle to a piece of power equipment. This type of ingestion is an acute hazard. Ingestion of lead, which may occur from bronze dust or solder particles is more of a chronic hazard.

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7. Physical Hazards

Physical hazards are assessed by determining whether there is scientifically valid evidence that the material is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable, or water reactive, as defined below:

1) Combustible liquid.

Any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100°F but below 200°F.

2) Compressed Gas.

a. A gas or mixture of gases in a container having an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70° F.

b. A gas or mixture of gases having in a container an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130°F, regardless of the pressure at 70°F.

c. A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100°F.

3) Explosive.

A chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous, release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure or high temperature.

4) Flammable.

A chemical that falls into one of the following categories:

a. "Aerosol, flammable" means an aerosol that yields a flame projection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening when ignited.

b. "Gas, flammable" means:

- A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13 percent by volume or less.

- A gas the, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12 percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit.

c. "Liquid, flammable" means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100°F,

d. "Solid, flammable" means a solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily an when ignited, burns so vigorously as to create a serious hazard.

5) Organic Peroxide.

An organic compound that contains the bivalent 0-0 structure derivative of hydrogen peroxide.

6) Oxidizer.

A chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.

7) Pyrophoric.

A chemical that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130°F or below.

8) Unstable.(Reactive)

A Chemical which in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature.

9) Water Reactive.

A chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.

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8. Protective Measures.

A. Work Practices.

Various approaches can be taken to prevent or reduce your exposure to chemical materials. Isolation from the exposure is the preferred method. Engineering controls which contain the hazard, ventilate it, or otherwise prevent it from reaching you are to be used whenever possible.

If the hazard cannot be adequately reduced through engineering controls, personal protective equipment can be used. If protective equipment is inadequate, administrative controls can be used to ensure that no one is overexposed.

Ventilation: Ventilation is the method of control most often used to reduce worker exposure to hazardous materials. This includes dilution ventilation (provided by the room fan systems), which may be used for relatively harmless materials in low concentration. Local exhaust ventilation, designed to capture vapors and gases as they are released, is the most common form of industrial ventilation. Specially designed systems are sometimes used to capture some highly toxic dusts; total containment glove boxes are used to maintain control over all detectable asbestos materials.

Administrative controls: Administrative controls are ways of scheduling workers so that no one person is over-exposed to hazardous materials. By reducing the length of exposure, an individual gets only a small dose of a hazardous material. In some cases (nuclear reactors, for example), administrative controls are the only safe way to schedule work in areas where it is impossible to reduce the hazards.

B. Emergency Procedures.

If there is a spill or release of hazardous or toxic substances, or it is suspected or questioned, Linfield College employees should clear the area in question and ensure that other employees are also clear of, and kept clear of, the area. The employee should then notify his/her supervisor for further instructions.

If the employee suspects that a physical hazard exists or there could be imminent danger to others who may come into the area, he/she should notify the dispatcher and request appropriate fire and police assistance, or request his/her supervisor to do so.

The Safety Director should be notified to respond to the location to evaluate and analyze the affected area for proper decontamination and safety.

 

C. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Where engineering controls are not feasible, or do not fully protect the worker, personal protective devices (such as gloves, safety glasses, and respirators) are used. Respirators must be carefully chosen. Special fit testing procedures are needed to assure full protection. Linfield College has a Respiratory Protection Program. Employees should check with the Linfield College Safety Director for information regarding the most appropriate PPE needed.

In order to provide protection, gloves must resist penetration by the appropriate hazardous material. Some gloves are good for one class of hazard but not effective against another. Gloves and other protective clothing must not have worn spots, tears, or cuts that may actually trap the hazardous material next to the skin. You are the best judge of whether or not the protective equipment assigned is doing the job.

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Program Training Requirements

The Hazard Communication Rule, Oregon Administrative Rule (OAR) Chapter 437, Hazard Communication (1910.1200) covers the requirements for all phases of hazard communication, including training.

Training Required

The Linfield College Safety Department shall provide employees with information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of their initial assignment, and whenever a new hazard is introduced into their work area. Such information and training shall be tailored to the types of hazards to which the employees will be exposed.

Information. Employees shall be informed of:

  1. The requirements of OR-OSHA Hazard Communication Information & Training section.
  2. Any operation in their work area where hazardous chemicals are present; and,
  3. The location and availability of the written hazard communication program, including the required list(s) of hazardous chemicals, and material safety data sheets required by OR-OSHA regulations.
  4. Chemicals present in their workplaces and the hazards associated with each chemical.

Training. Employee training shall include at least:

  1. Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical in the work area (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals when being released, etc.);
  2. The physical and health hazards of the chemicals in the work area including the likely physical symptoms or effects of overexposure;
  3. The measures employees can take to protect themselves from these hazards, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used; and,
  4. The details of the hazard communication program developed by the employer, including an explanation of the labeling system and the material safety data sheet, and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information.

Training Contents

The training of personnel in Hazard Communication will contain the following recommended items:

  • OR-OSHA requirements
  • Operations where hazardous chemicals are present.
  • The Linfield College written hazard communication program.
  • How to obtain and use appropriate hazard information, including,
          - Container labels
          - Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Detecting chemical hazards
  • Hazards of the chemicals
  • Protective measures

Content Overview

Information and training requirements for hazardous chemicals.


Objectives

After completing this training, employees will:

  • Understand the hazard communication regulations.
  • Know operations where hazardous chemicals are present.
  • Know location, availability, and details of the written hazard communication program.
  • Know methods and observations for detecting hazardous chemicals.
  • Know the physical and health hazards of the chemicals.
  • Know protective measures to take.


Handouts and Other Materials

Sample labels.   Training outline.

Sample MSDSs.  Training roster and certification.

Sample PPE.    Test.


Audio-Visual

Safety Department video on Hazard Communications

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APPENDIX A

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

ACGIH - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

acid - A compound that reacts with bases neutralizing them and forming a salt. Acids have a pH of less than 7.0. They are corrosive to human tissue and are to be handled with care.

action level - An exposure level set by OSHA which is generally equal to one-half the value of the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL).

acute exposure - A sudden or one-time exposure to a large dose of a hazardous material.

administrative controls - Any measure taken by management to reduce employees' Time-Weighted-Average exposures without involving engineering changes. These "administrative" measures may include such methods as worker rotation, housekeeping, training, or limiting the time spent performing a job function.

alkali - see "base"

autoignition temperature - The minimum temperature at which a substance will ignite in air when there is no other ignition source. For liquids, it is defined as the lowest temperature at which a drop of solvent will ignite spontaneously.

base, basic - A compound which reacts with an acid to form a salt and has a pH greater than 7.0. It attacks biological tissue by chemical action. Some examples are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH).

°C - Degrees Celsius (See "Celsius").

carcinogen, carcinogenic - Any substance or agent capable of causing cancer. A chemical is considered to be a carcinogen if: (a) It has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and found to be a carcinogen or potential carcinogen; or (b) It is listed as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen in the ANNUAL REPORT ON CARCINOGENS published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) (latest edition); or (c) It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen.

CAS number - Chemical Abstract Service registry number.

caustic - See "base".

Celsius - (Degrees Celsius, Centigrade) A temperature scale in which water freezes at 0°C and boils at 100°C. A Celsius degree is 1/100th the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at 1.0 atmospheric pressure.

Centigrade - See "Celsius".

central nervous system - The part of the nervous system comprising the brain and the spinal cord.

chemical - Any element, chemical compound, or mixture of elements and/or compounds.

chronic exposure - An exposure to low-level sub-lethal concentrations of a substance over a prolonged period of time. A repeated and long-term exposure.

combustible, combustible liquid - A liquid with a flash point at or above 100 0 F (37.8°C), but below 200°F (93.3°C); except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F, or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

compressed gas - (a) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi or 70°F (21.1°C); or (b) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130°F (54.4°C) regardless of the pressure at 70°F (21.1°C); or (3) A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100°F (37.8°C) as determined by ASTM D-323-72.

corrosive - A chemical which causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissues by chemical action at the site of contact.

decomposition products - Any of the new substances created by the breakdown (decomposition) of an original material into smaller components. This breakdown may be thermal, chemical, electrochemical, electromagnetic, etc.

engineering controls - Engineering measures taken to reduce employees' Time-Weighted-Average exposures involving equipment change, process change, ventilation, containment, isolation, etc.

explosive - A chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of energy, pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.

explosive limits - The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapor mixed with proper proportions of air will flash or explode if an ignition source is present. The range extends between two points designated lower explosive limit (LEL) and the upper explosive limit (UEL) and are expressed in percent by volume of vapor in air.

exposure - When an employee is subjected to a hazardous chemical in a course of employment through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption, etc.) and includes potential (e.g., accidental or possible) exposure.

°F - Degrees Fahrenheit. (See "Fahrenheit")

Fahrenheit - (Degrees Fahrenheit) A temperature scale in which water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F . A Fahrenheit degree is 1/180th the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at 1.0 atmospheres (atmospheric pressure at sea level, 14.7 psi).

flammable - Easily set on fire: any aerosol, gas, liquid, or solid which meets the specific physical criteria to be classified as "flammable." (6)

(a) flammable aerosol - An aerosol that, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.45, yields a flame projection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve opening.

(b) flammable gas (i) - A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of thirteen (13) percent by volume or less; or (ii) A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than twelve (12) percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit.

(c) flammable liquid - Any liquid having a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100°F (37.8°C) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

(d) flammable solid - A solid that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered to be a flammable solid, if when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis.

flammable limits - See "explosive limits."

flash point - The lowest temperature in degrees Fahrenheit ( °F) at which a liquid will give off enough flammable vapor to ignite. Since flash points vary according to how they are obtained, the method used must be listed. The methods used most extensively include: Tag Closed Cup (TCC); Pensky-Martens Closed Cup (PMCC); and Setaflash (SETA).

fume - An aerosol of very fine solid particles produced by recondensation from the vapor phase. An example of this is weld fume which is formed as vaporized metal recondenses in the air into very fine solid repairable particles.

gas - A state of matter in which the material has very low density and viscosity, can expand and contract greatly in response to changes in temperature and pressure; a gas easily diffuses into other gases, readily and uniformly distributing itself throughout any container.

hazard warning - Any words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof appearing on a label or other appropriate form of warning which convey the hazards of the chemical(s) in the container(s).

hazardous chemical - Any chemical capable of causing injury or disease due to flammable, toxic, corrosive, radioactive, explosive, or reactive properties. Any chemical which meets the criteria of 29 CFR 1910.1200 (Hazard Communication Standard) as a physical hazard or a health hazard.

health hazard - A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or high toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

highly toxic - A chemical falling within any of the following categories: (a) A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. (b) A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between two and three kilograms each. (c) A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour (or less if death occurs within one hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

IDLH - Immediately dangerous to life or health.

ignition source - Any source (spark, flame, heat) with sufficient energy to ignite a flammable or combustible mixture.

ignition temperature - See "autoignition."

incompatibility (chemical) - Unsuitable for mixing, contact, or association due to undesirable reaction and effects.

industrial hygiene - The science that deals with the recognition, evaluation, and control of potential health hazards in the industrial environment.

inflammable - See "flammable."

ingestion - The process of taking substances into the body by mouth, such as food, drink, medicine, etc.

inhalation - The breathing in of vapors, gases, mists, aerosols, fumes, and/or dusts.

irritant - A chemical, which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.

LEL - Lower explosive limit. See also "explosive limits."

LFL - Lower flammable limit.

liquid - A state of matter in which the substance is a formless fluid that flows in accordance with the law of gravity.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) - Written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical as required by OSHA under Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.1200 (Hazard Communication Standard).

mist - Suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state, such as by splashing, foaming, or atomizing. Generally mists are formed when a finely divided liquid is suspended in air.

mixture - Any combination of two or more chemicals if the combination is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction. A combination of two or more substances which may be separated by mechanical means. The components may not be uniformly dispersed.

mutagen - A chemical or physical effect which can alter genetic material in an organism and results in physical or functional changes in all subsequent generations.

nuisance particulates - General innocuous dust, not recognized as the direct cause of a serious pathological condition. Dust or other fine solids that are nuisances to the respiratory tract.

odor threshold - (human odor threshold) The minimum concentration of a substance in air which is necessary for detection by the human olfactory system.

OSHA - Usually refers to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration but sometimes is used for the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

oxidizer - A chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in 29 CFR 1910.109(a), that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - Permissible Exposure Limit as required by OSHA regulation 29 CFR-1910.1000(e) Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3. These are the Federally Regulated "legal" limits set at a level which is determined to be safe for an employee exposed for eight hours per day, 40 hours per week, for a "working lifetime."

personal protective equipment (PPE) - Any clothing or gear worn or used by an individual to protect against some external physical (chemical, noise, heat, electricity, dust, mist, fume, etc.) hazard. Examples of PPE are gloves, boots, respirators, hearing protection, coveralls, glasses, space suit, etc.

pH - A system used to express the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A pH of 7.0 is neutral.

physical hazard - A chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive per liter of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour (or less if death occurs within one hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

pyrophoric - Any liquid that ignites spontaneously in dry or moist air at or below 130°F.

reactive material - A chemical substance or mixture that may vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature.

reproductive toxin - Chemicals which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis).

self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) - Protective equipment that supplies fresh air to the user from some tank storage system, not filtered air as with a respirator.

sensitizer - A chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical. If the first exposure does not cause a reaction, but subsequent exposures do, an individual has become sensitized.

smoke - An air suspension (aerosol) of particles, usually but not necessarily solid, often originating in a solid nucleus, formed from combustion or sublimation.

teratogen - An agent or factor that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.

TLV - The Threshold Limit Value as recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Usually expressed as a time-weighted average (TWA), it is the concentration of a chemical in air (as vapor, mist, etc.) to which most workers can be exposed for a normal eight-hour work day, 40 hours a week, without experiencing adverse effects. Refer to entry on (SKIN) for additional information on certain chemicals.

TLV-C or TLV-CEILING - Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling. The workplace concentration of chemical in air that should not be exceeded even instantaneously.

TLV-STEL - Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit. The workplace concentration of a chemical in air (as vapor, mist, etc.) to which workers can be exposed continuously for a 15 minute period of time without suffering from: 1) irritation, 2) chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or 3) narcosis, provided the TLV-TWA is not exceeded. Exposures at the STEL should not be repeated more than four times per day, and there should be a minimum of 60 minutes between STEL exposures.

toxic - A substance that can produce injury or illness to man through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption; a poison. A chemical falling within any of the following categories: (a) Chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each, (b) Chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between two and three kilograms each, (c) Chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than two milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams

UEL - Upper Explosive Limit. See also "explosive limits."

UFL - Upper Flammable Limit.

unstable - (reactive) A chemical which in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks pressure or temperature.

vapor - Matter brought to a gaseous state. That fraction of a liquid which will change to the vapor state even though conditions are such that the material should remain a liquid. Example: water boils at 212°F, however; liquid water will become vapor (evaporate) from an open vessel at room temperature.

ventilation - General Ventilation - when the concentration of a contaminant in the exhaust air stream is not significantly higher than in the general room air.

(a) natural general ventilation - when air movement through buildings and enclosures is controlled by wind and thermal convection.

(b) mechanical general ventilation - when air movement through buildings and enclosures is controlled mechanically with fans designed to adequately distribute air, but not to ventilate any specific operation.

Local Exhaust Ventilation - when the concentration of contaminant in the exhaust air stream is significantly higher than that in the general room air. A local exhaust system is one in which the contaminant being controlled is captured at or near the place where it is created or dispersed. A local exhaust system usually includes the use of hoods or enclosures, ductwork leading to an exhaust fan, an air cleaning device for air pollution abatement and finally, discharged to the outside air.

water-reactive - A chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.

REFERENCES

Oregon Administrative Rules (OAR), Chapter 437, Division 2/Z

OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200

Industrial Health, Peterson, Jack E., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1977

Pocket Dictionary of Safety and Health Terms (Prod. No. 563), National Hazards Control Institute, Easton, PA, 1985

SAF-T-FAX, Material Safety Data Sheet Glossary of Terms, Mogul Corporation, 1984

Reference Appendix (5 pgs.), Source unknown

Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Random House, New York, 1968

Handbook of Industrial Solvents, 5th Edition, Alliance of American Insurers, 1980

Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 12th Edition, 1973

Industrial Ventilation, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Edward Brothers, Inc., 14th Edition, 1976

The Industrial Environment - Its Evaluation and Control, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (NIOSH), Government Printing Office, 1973

Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1967

Environmental, Health and Safety Personnel Input

Texaco, Explanation of the Industrial Hygiene Toxicology, and Material Safety Data Sheet, 1985

Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene, Julian Olishifski and Frank McElroy, National Safety Council, Chicago, IL, 1976

The MSDS Pocket Dictionary, Edited by Joseph O. Accrocco, Genium Publishing Corp., Schenectady, NY, 1988

Appendix B

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS)

HOW TO USE A MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

The format and quality of material safety data sheets may vary greatly from one manufacturer to another, but all of the following material will be covered on every MSDS.

Section I - Material Identification The first section identifies the material and the supplier. The material name on the MSDS must match the name on the container. If the material has more than one name, each will be listed. The chemical formula may also be given. The supplier's name, address, and an emergency telephone number are also listed in this section.

Section II - Ingredients and Hazards Section 2 lists the individual hazardous chemicals in the product and their relative percentage of concentration. If exposure limits have been established, they will be shown for each chemical.

Section III - Physical Data Physical data typically includes a material's boiling point, solubility in water, viscosity, specific gravity, melting point, evaporation rate, molecular weight, etc., as well as the appearance and odor of the material.

Section IV - Fire and Explosion Data Section 4 of the MSDS will indicate what protective clothing or respiratory equipment should be used by fire fighters and what type of extinguishing materials are best for use when fighting a fire involving the material.

Section V - Reactivity Data The information found in Section 5 will vary greatly from one MSDS to another because of the many different ways that materials may react with one another. The information presented should focus on the materials and circumstances that could be most hazardous when combined with the material covered by the MSDS.

Section VI - Health Hazard Information Section 6 of the MSDS must describe all known routes of entry of the chemical into the body, including eye contact, skin contact, inhalation, and ingestion. Acute (immediate) and chronic (long-term) effects must be stated. If the material is carcinogenic, that fact must be stated. Medical and first-aid treatments for accidental exposure will be described.

Section VII - Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures Safe work practices to be followed in the event of an accident with a particular material are described. Methods and procedures for proper handling of spills, leaks, and disposal of wastes are covered.

Section VIII - Special Protection Information Methods for reducing exposure to a particular hazardous material are described. The methods may include ventilation requirements, breathing apparatus, as well as protective clothing such as gloves, aprons, and safety glasses.

Section IX - Special Precautions and Comments Safe storage and handling of the material are described. The types of labels or markings for containers are described, and particular Department of Transportation (DOT) policies for handling the material are listed.

This and other valuable information, including how to obtain an MSDS, can be found on the Safety Department MSDS page.

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E-mail to Environmental Health and Safety Department: lpowell@linfield.edu