Chemical Hygiene Plan
The Chemical Hygiene Plan provides written requirements for working with hazardous chemicals in laboratories or studios. This plan includes:
It is the policy of Linfield College to prevent injuries to its students, employees, and visitors, to protect its property from damage, and to provide for the safety of the public in connection with College operations and facilities.
The President and the Vice President of Business and Finance in consultation with the Director of Office of Environment, Health and Safety have the responsibility for assisting individuals and supervisors in maintaining a safe environment within their work area. However, the primary responsibility for safety rests with the individuals who are engaged in research, education, and support activities at Linfield College.
A Campus Safety Team consisting of faculty, staff and student representatives has been established to recommend the guidelines, resources, and activities needed to implement a successful safety program at Linfield College. Linfield College has established a Director of Office of Environment, Health and Safety to perform regulatory required surveillance and assist personnel and departments in determining methods for conducting safe operations within the workplace.
Laboratory Worker/Student is responsible for planning and conducting each operation in accordance with chemical hygiene and safety practices and procedures.
Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor is responsible for:
Department Head is responsible for facilitating the implementation of chemical hygiene and safety practices within the department. The Department Head is responsible for designating the department representative to the Chemical Safety Committee.
Chemical Hygiene Officer, CHO, a person appointed by the President, is responsible for assisting Department Heads and Principal Investigators or Laboratory Instructors in the implementation of their responsibilities. The duties include:
Chemical Safety Committee (CSC) consists of the Chemical Hygiene Officer and at least one faculty representative from each department which conducts experiments involving chemicals. The CSC is responsible for overview of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and Program. The Committee will:
Design and construction/Physical Plant Committee is responsible for design and construction of laboratories, modifications to laboratories and equipment, and maintenance of laboratory ventilation and safety systems. Specific duties include:
Appendix B, General Laboratory Safety Rules and Practices, lists the general safety practices which personnel are expected to follow regardless of the nature of experimentation, research, or work being performed.
The safe design of laboratory systems is essential to the prevention of accidents and minimization of hazardous chemical exposures in the laboratory. Design requirements for laboratories and equipment will be developed by the Department and the Physical Plant. The Chemical Safety Committee will review these requirements and subsequent modifications to this design criteria document.
At a minimum, design criteria will meet local code requirements and ANSI standards specific to the type of laboratory or equipment use. Deviations from established design criteria require the concurrence of the Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor, design engineer/architect, the Chemical Hygiene Officer and the Director, Office Of Environment, Health and Safety. Any modifications to installed and operating systems/equipment must meet the established design criteria.
Revisions to the Chemical Hygiene Plan can be made as necessary by the Chemical Hygiene Officer, but will be approved annually by the Chemical Hygiene Committee.
A. Critical Hazards Identification
Initial Hazards Assessment
Prior to the initial start up of a new type of procedure or the substantial change in an existing procedure, the Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor must evaluate the potential hazards associated with the work. The following methods are acceptable means to do this:
a. Use the hazards identification checklist contained in Appendix C, Process Hazards Identification Checklist.
b. Perform your own review and document the criteria used and associated findings.
Regardless of the evaluation method used, the Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor must identify the potential hazards and protective measures instituted to mitigate each hazard.
The Chemical Hygiene Officer must be notified of any of the following:
Work involving any chemical listed in Appendix D, OSHA Regulated Substances.
Use of Respiratory Protection.
Installation of alarms/sensors for the purpose of alerting the researcher or user that a hazardous condition exists.
Each process change must be evaluated in a manner similar to the initial evaluation. A simple memo or a specific note in a laboratory notebook will be sufficient to document each change and associated evaluation.
B. Environmental Monitoring and Surveillance
a. Air sampling will be performed for any process where a known or suspected carcinogen, allergen, or reproductive hazard is used and a fume hood/filtered glove box is not used to contain the contaminant.
b. Air sampling will be performed where respiratory protection is being worn.
c. Air sampling will be performed upon the request of the Principal Investigator, Laboratory Instructor or laboratory worker.
a. NIOSH/OSHA/ACGIH protocols, where they exist, will be used when performing air sampling.
b. Routine sampling will continue until:
1. The experiment is terminated.
2. Two consecutive sampling periods taken at least 7 days apart show that air concentrations are less than 10% of the associated OSHA PEL or, where one does not exist, the ACGIH TLV or NIOSH REL.
Non-routine sampling may be performed for:
a. A single step operation where verification of process controls is desired and multiple/consecutive air sampling is impractical.
b. Requests by the Principal Investigator, Laboratory Instructor, or laboratory worker.
c. Laboratory accidents involving release of air contaminants.
A. Procurement of Chemicals
All Chemicals will be procured through either the College Purchasing or Receiving Department purchasing systems.
Chemicals will be ordered in the smallest quantity needed to conduct the experiment.
Approval from the Chemical Hygiene Officer must be obtained for acquisition of chemicals that will not be purchased but transferred to the College.
The Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor must notify the Chemical Hygiene Officer of an order of a new chemical that is listed in Appendix D OSHA Regulated Substances.
The Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor must alert the receiving department if an order is placed for a chemical which requires special handling precautions upon receipt (e.g., storage in a cold environment or handling of a shock sensitive material, etc.)
Radioactive Materials are managed under the Linfield College Radiation Safety Program. Contact x2431 for details. (Director of Office of Environment, Health and Safety)
Biological specimens, cultures, etc. are exempt from this program.
B. Initial Storage and Distribution
Initial receipt and storage by receiving personnel will be performed in accordance with written protocols on receipt, handling, and storage of hazardous materials.
These protocols and any revisions must be reviewed and approved by the Chemical Safety Committee.
Chemicals will be distributed to requesters provided the following safety precautions are taken:
a. The chemicals are transported in safety carry buckets or on a wheeled cart with a surface and design capable of negotiating uneven surfaces (e.g. expansion joints, floor drains) without tipping the chemical container or cart.
b. All chemical containers will be transported closed so that no vapors are emitted to the atmosphere.
c. Cylinders will be transported using a hand truck specifically designed for that purpose.
d. All cylinders will be strapped to the hand truck and the cylinder cover caps shall be screwed on hand-tight.
C. Chemical Storage
Storage in stock/chemical storerooms will be done as specified in written protocols developed in Section III. Chemical Procurement, Distribution, and Storage; Part B. Initial Storage and Distribution.
Storage in laboratories will be performed as follows:
a. Chemicals will be stored so incompatible chemicals are separated. Note: Appendix E, Chemical Compatibility Guide, contains guidance on chemical compatibility.
b. Ventilation to the laboratory exhaust system must be provided for cabinet or under hood storage or flammable or carcinogenic liquids.
c. Refrigerators used for storage of flammable liquids must be explosion proof.
d. Total quantities of flammable and combustible liquids allowed in the laboratory must not exceed 60 liters.
e. Cylinders of compressed gases will be securely strapped or chained to a wall or bench top.
f. Cylinders will be capped when not in use.
g. All cylinders and chemical containers will be stored away from heat sources and direct sunlight.
An inventory list of all chemicals and material safety data sheets are available in Murdock 107.
A. Examination Determination
Medical examinations are required for the following:
a. Personnel using Air Purifying respirators, Air Supplied, or Self Contained Breathing Apparatus respiratory protection.
b. Work involving the Appendix D listed substances and excessive associated exposure level conditions.
c. Personnel exhibiting signs or symptoms attributed to exposure of the hazardous chemicals they are working with.
Medical exams may be requested by the Chemical Hygiene Officer, Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor.
Medical exams will be provided, upon request to personnel exposed to hazardous chemicals as a result of a spill, leak, or explosion.
B. Medical Exam Criteria and Frequency
a. Medical exam criteria will be determined by the licensed physician performing the exam.
b. Where medical exam guidance exists, such as for OSHA regulated substances, this criteria will be included in the physician’s exam.
a. For examinations used in certifying respirator users, the exam frequency will be annual for those over 45 years, and every three years for all others.
b. For examinations resulting from potential overexposure to hazardous substances, the examination frequency will be determined by the licensed physician.
c. For examinations resulting from exposures to OSHA regulated substances, the examination frequency will be the period set within the OSHA standard.
Exam Information and Results
a. The following information will be provided to the examining physician:
1. The identity of the hazardous chemical(s) to which the employee has been or may be exposed.
2. A description of the conditions under which the exposure occurred, including surveillance data.
3. A description of the signs and symptoms of exposure that the employee is experiencing.
b. Upon completion of the exam, the physician will supply in writing to both the employer and employee the following:
1. Recommendations for further medical follow-up.
2. The result of the medical examination and any associated tests.
3. A report of any medical condition which may place the employee at increased risk as a result of exposure to a hazardous chemical.
4. A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the consultation/examination and any medical condition that may require further examination or treatment.
c. The employer’s copy of the physician’s results will only contain information related to occupational exposures of the employee.
C. Bioassay Frequency and Criteria
The Chemical Hygiene Officer will determine the type of frequency of bioassays to be performed.
OSHA, NIOSH, or ACGIH guidance will be used in determining action levels and follow-up examinations.
The Chemical Hygiene Officer will document, noting references, what criteria were used and why.
A. Ventilation/Containment Systems
a. Only material and equipment directly related to the experiment in progress may be kept in the fume hood.
b. Each fume hood is classified, and only materials authorized for the classification should be used. These classifications and associated authorized materials are listed in Appendix F.
c. Fume hoods should be checked by the user each day prior to use.
d. Fume hoods will be inspected and tested annually by the Chemical Hygiene Officer.
e. Work/experiments in a hood will be discontinued whenever maintenance or repair of the system is being performed.
f. Fume hoods will be inspected and tested by the Physical Plant after initial operation and after repairs to the supply/exhaust system.
Other Local Exhaust/Containment Systems
a. Glove Boxes will be tested for leaks prior to each day’s use.
B. Fire Safety Equipment
a. Each lab will be equipped with a fire extinguisher capable of extinguishing the type of fire that may be generated by the materials used in the lab.
b. All fire extinguishers will be inspected annually by Campus Safety.
c. The laboratory personnel are responsible for ensuring that fire extinguisher(s) are present and operable during their monthly laboratory inspection (see Section IX, Part B).
d. The Campus Safety will be responsible for performing the “breakdown” and hydrostatic tests required by code for the extinguishers.
e. Missing, discharged, or malfunctioning extinguishers should be reported to Campus Safety immediately after discovery.
Laboratory personnel are responsible for ensuring the fire blanket is present during their monthly laboratory inspection (see Section IX, Part B).
All other fire protection equipment maintenance and inspection will be the responsibility of the Physical Plant.
C. Safety Showers/Eye Washes
The operability of eyewashes should be determined by laboratory personnel during their monthly laboratory inspection (see Section IX, Part B).
Safety showers and eyewashes will be tested annually by Chemical Hygiene Officer.
D. Special Alarms, Detection Devices, and Emergency Equipment
Any Installation of alarms or detection devices designed to alert personnel to the presence of a hazard condition must be approved by the CHO.
Alarms and detection devices will be tested at least annually by the Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor.
Laboratory Personnel are responsible for inspecting emergency equipment and first aid supplies during the monthly inspection (see Section IX, Part B.)
A. Respiratory Protection
The use of respiratory protection requires training from and approval of the Director of Office of Environment, Health and Safety.
The details of the respiratory protection program can be obtained by calling the Director of Office of Environment, Health and Safe for training and program outline.
B. Protective Clothing
Protective clothing such as gloves, lab coats, aprons, or suits should be selected to resist the substance being used.
The Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor is responsible for determining the protective clothing needed for laboratory personnel.
Appendix G, Glove Compatibility Guide should be used as a guide when choosing a glove or suit.
Gloves should be inspected by the user prior to use and at least during the monthly laboratory inspection.
C. Hearing Protection
Hearing protection will be provided for anyone working in an area where the noise levels exceed 85 dB.
The Office of Environment, Health and Safety shouldbe consulted so that accurate noise measurements can be made, correct hearing protection can be provided, and the need for noise reduction engineering controls can be evaluated.
D. Eye Protection
Eye protection in mandatory for all entries into and work within a lab, studio, or shop where chemicals are used.
The level of eye protection required will be determined by the Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor.
All eye protection used will need ANSI Z87.1 requirements. Note: The Bookstore carries (for sale) eye protection meeting this requirement.
A. Postings and Signs
All labs using OSHA regulated substances will be posted.
Each lab will contain a posting, in a prominent location, that contains the phone numbers to call if an emergency occurs.
Signs for emergency response equipment such as safety showers and fire extinguishers will be clearly visible and unobstructed.
B. Labels and Labeling
All containers in the lab must be labeled. The label should, at a minimum, list the substance names and type of hazard (toxic, flammable, reactive, corrosive, etc.).
Containers being immediately used and consumed in the experiment are exempt from above.
A. Chemical Safety Training
Employees and students will be provided safety training prior to initial assignment to the laboratory work area.
Ensuring that the training is obtained by each employee will be the responsibility of the department. Chemical Hygiene Officer will provide training when requested.
The training will include the following topics:
· The contents of OSHA standard (29CFR1910 1450) and its appendices.
· The location and availability of the Linfield College Chemical Hygiene Plan.
· The permissible exposure limits for OSHA regulated substances and ACGIH TLV’s where OSHA standards do not exist.
· Signs, symptoms, and health hazards associated with exposures to hazardous chemicals in the laboratory.
· The location of reference material on the hazards, safe handling, storage, and disposal of hazardous chemicals found in the laboratory.
· Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical.
· The protective measures an employee or student can take to prevent or reduce exposure to a hazardous chemical.
· Emergency response procedures.
Documentation on who received training and the dates training was provided will be maintained by Chemical Hygiene Officer.
B. Specialty Training
Principal Investigators or Laboratory Instructors will ensure training is provided to laboratory personnel for the procedures/experiments they are performing.
Personnel who are potentially exposed to concentrations in excess of values listed for the substances in Appendix D, OSHA Regulated Substances will receive additional training. Note: The amounts of material on hand, the amounts of material used, and the personnel using the material must be recorded.
Principal Investigators or Laboratory Instructors may request additional training for work involving complex or potentially reactive/explosive chemical operations.
Documentation of specialty training will be maintained by Chemical Hygiene Officer.
Chemical waste collection, handling, storage and disposal requirements are delineated in the Linfield College Chemical Waste Program.
C. Emergency Response
Accidents such as hazardous spills, personnel injuries, fires or explosions should be immediately reported to Campus Safety, x5300. Security can then expeditiously call the appropriate Linfield College response personnel or fire/medical / hazmat assistance. Reporting of accidents should be clear and concise, with the notification including:
All accidents (injuries, fires, spills, explosion) must be reported as per Campus Incident Investigation & Analysis Report Form. Personnel at the immediate scene of the accident should take actions that will mitigate the extent of the accident without jeopardizing their health and safety. When in doubt, warn others in the area, vacate the area, travel to a safe location and make a phone call to Campus Safety (x5300). General guidance for handling specific types of emergencies are contained in Appendix A, Emergency Response Guidance.
A. Records Retention
Training records will be maintained by the Director, Office of Environment, Health and Safety for four (4) years.
Records of Appendix D substance usage will be maintained by the Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor.
Accident records will be reviewed by Chemical Hygiene Officer and maintained by Director of Office of Environment, Health and Safety.
Medical and exposure records will be maintained by the Personnel Department.
Each Principal Investigator or Laboratory Instructor will ensure his/her laboratory is inspected at least monthly using the checklist in Appendix H or an equivalent document.
The Chemical Hygiene Officer will be responsible for performing an annual safety assessment of all lab and work areas for each department.
All accidents that involve explosions, spills, fires or personal injuries will be reported to the Chemical Hygiene Officer. The Chemical Hygiene Officer will assist the Department, Principal Investigator, or Laboratory Instructor in evaluating the cause and institute the corrective actions needed to prevent recurrence.
C. External Program Evaluations
Biennially, an evaluation of the Linfield College Hygiene Program will be performed by individual(s)/company independent of Linfield College program.
D. Assessment Review and Evaluation
The Chemical Hygiene Officer will prepare an annual report for the Chemical Safety Committee and the report will contain the following:
The Chemical Safety Committee will review the report and send an executive summary with recommendations to senior Linfield College management (President, Vice President of Business and Administration, and Director of Office of Environment, Health and Safety) for their review and action.
A. Spilled Substances
General Response Actions
Stop the source of the spill
Attend to any persons who may have been contaminated.
Notify persons in the immediate area about the spill.
Evacuate all nonessential personnel from the spill area.
If the spilled material is flammable, turn off ignition and heat sources.
Avoid breathing vapors of the spilled material; if necessary, use a respirator.
Leave on or establish exhaust ventilation if it is safe to do so.
Secure supplies to effect cleanup.
During cleanup, wear appropriate protective apparel.
Notify the Chemical Hygiene Officer if a regulated substance is involved.
Cleaning and Handling Instructions for Spilled Liquids
Confine or contain the spill to a small area. Do not let it spread.
For small quantities of inorganic acids or bases, use a neutralizing agent or an absorbent mixture (e.g., soda ash or diatomaceous earth). For small quantities of other materials, absorb the spill with a non-reactive material (such as vermiculite, dry sand, or towels).
For larger amounts of inorganic acids and bases, flush with large amounts of water (provided that the water will not cause additional damage). Flooding is not recommended in storerooms where violent spattering may cause additional hazards or in areas where water-reactive chemicals may be present.
Mop up the spill, wringing out the mob in a sink or a pail equipped with rollers.
Carefully pick up and clean any cartons or bottles that have been splashed or immersed.
Vacuum the area with a vacuum cleaner approved for the material involved, remembering that the exhaust of a vacuum cleaner can create aerosols and, thus, should be vented to a hood or through a filter.
If the spilled material is extremely volatile, let it evaporate and be exhausted by the mechanical ventilation system (provided that the hood and associated mechanical system is spark-proof).
Dispose of residues according to hazardous waste disposal procedures.
Cleaning and Handling Instructions for Spilled Solids
For substances which are of low toxicity ( i.e. not carcinogenic, allergenic, or a reproductive hazard) push into a dust pan and place them in a solid-waste container for disposal.
Additional precautions such as the use of a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter will be necessary when cleaning up spills of more highly toxic solids. Call the Director, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (x2431 or 971-237-3910) to get assistance and to report the incident.
Instructions for Leaking Compressed Gas Cylinders
Occasionally, a cylinder or one of its component parts develops a leak. Most such leaks occur at the top of the cylinder in area such as the valve threads, safety device, valve stem, and valve outlet.
If a leak is suspected, do not use a flame for detection; rather, a flammable-gas leak detector or soapy water or other suitable solution should be used.
If the leak cannot be remedied by tightening a valve gland or packing nut, emergency action procedures should be followed and the supplier should be notified.
Laboratory workers should never attempt to repair a leak at the valve threads or safety device; rather, they should consult with the supplier for instructions.
The following general procedures can be used for leaks of a minimum size where the indicated action can be taken without serious exposure to personnel:
a. If it is necessary to move a leaking cylinder through populated portions of the building, place a plastic bag, rubber shroud, or similar device over the top and tape it (duct tape preferred) to the cylinder to confine the leaking gas.
b. Non-corrosive, flammable, inert, or oxidizing gases - Move the cylinder to an isolated area (away from combustible material if the gas is flammable or an oxidizing agent) and post signs that describe the hazards and state warnings.
c. Corrosive gases may increase the size of the leak as they are released and some corrosives are also oxidants or flammable. Move the cylinder to an isolated, well-ventilated area and used suitable means to direct the gas into an appropriated chemical neutralizer. Post signs that describe the hazards and state warnings.
d. Toxic gases - Follow the same procedure as for corrosive gases. Move the cylinder to an isolated, well-ventilated area and use suitable means to direct the gas into an appropriate chemical neutralizer. Post signs that describe the hazards and state the warnings.
B. Fires and Explosions
General Response Actions
Alert other personnel in the laboratory.
Determine if means are available to extinguish fire; if not, then vacate area and activate nearest building fire alarm.
Attack the fire immediately using the lab extinguisher appropriate for the following types of fire:
a. Class A - ordinary combustible solids such as paper, wood, coal, rubber and textiles.
b. Class B - petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel, motor oil, and grease) and volatile flammable solvents.
c. Class C - electrical equipment.
d. Class D - combustible or reactive metals (such as sodium and potassium), metal hydrides, or organometallics (such as alkylaluminums).
C. Personal Injury
General response Actions
Warn others and render assistance to persons involved.
If further exposure is life threatening, then remove injured from the affected area.
If chemicals are involved, wash person under safety shower.
Notify the Safety Department (x5300) and provide location, type of injury, and number of persons injured.
A. General Principles
1. Know the safety rules and procedures that apply to the work that is being done. Determine the potential hazards (e.g., physical, chemical biological) and appropriated safety precautions before beginning any new operation.
2. Know the location of and how to use the emergency equipment in your area, as well as how to obtain additional help in an emergency, and be familiar with emergency procedures.
3. Know the types of protective equipment available and use the proper type for each job.
4. Keep work areas clean and uncluttered.
5. Be alert to unsafe conditions and actions and call attention to them so that corrections can be made as soon as possible. Someone else’s accident can be as dangerous to you as any you might have.
6. Avoid consuming food or beverages or smoking in areas where chemicals are being used or stored.
7. Avoid hazards to the environment by following accepted waste disposal procedures. Chemical reactions may require traps or scrubbing devices to prevent the escape of toxic substances.
8. Be certain all chemicals are correctly and clearly labeled. Post warning signs when unusual hazards, such as radiation, laser operations, flammable materials, biological hazard, or other special problems exist.
9. Remain out of the area of a fire or personal injury unless it is your responsibility to help meet the emergency. Curious bystanders interfere with rescue and emergency personnel and endanger themselves.
10. Avoid distracting or startling any other worker. Practical jokes or horseplay cannot be tolerated at any time.
11. Use equipment only its designation purpose.
12. Position and clamp reaction apparatus thoughtfully in order to permit manipulation without the need to move the apparatus until the entire reaction is completed. Combine reagents in appropriate order, and avoid adding solids to hot liquids.
13. Think, act, and encourage safety until it becomes a habit.
B. Health and Hygiene
1. Wear appropriate eye protection at all times.
2. Use protective apparel, including face shields, gloves, and other special clothing when in the laboratory.
3. Confine long hair and loose clothing when in the laboratory.
4. Use a pipet bulb or an aspirator to provide suction to pipet chemicals or to start a siphon, not your mouth.
5. Use appropriate safety equipment when appropriate to avoid exposure to gases, vapors, and aerosols.
6. Wash well before leaving the laboratory area. However, avoid the use of solvents for washing the skin. They remove the natural protective oils from the skin and can cause irritation and inflammation. In some cases, washing with a solvent might facilitate absorption of a toxic chemical.
C. Food Handling
Contamination of food, drink, and smoking materials is a potential route for exposure to toxic substances. Food should be stored, handled, and consumed in an area free of hazardous substances.
1. Consumption of food or beverages is not be permitted in areas where laboratory operations may be carried out.
2. Glassware or utensils that have been used for laboratory operations will not be used to prepare or consume food or beverages. Laboratory spaces, refrigerators, ice chests, cold rooms, and such will not be used for food storage; separate equipment should be dedicated to that use and prominently labeled.
1. Work areas should be kept clean and free from obstructions. Cleanup should follow the completion of any operation or at the end of each day.
2. Wastes should be deposited in appropriate receptacles.
3. Spilled chemicals should be cleaned up immediately and disposed of properly. Disposal procedures should be established and all laboratory personnel should be informed of them; the effects of other laboratory accidents should also be cleaned up promptly.
4. Unlabeled containers and chemical wastes should be disposed of promptly, by using appropriate procedures. Such materials, as well as chemicals that are no longer needed, should not accumulate in the laboratory.
5. Floors should be cleaned regularly; accumulated dust, chromatography adsorbents, and other assorted chemicals and materials pose respiratory hazards.
6. Stairways and hallways should not be used as storage areas.
7. Access to exits, emergency equipment, controls, and such should never be blocked.
8. Equipment and chemicals should be stored properly; clutter should be minimized.
E. Equipment Maintenance
1. Develop an inspection and maintenance schedule for equipment.
2. Faulty or non-functional equipment should be tagged such that an individual is warned not to use that equipment.
F. Guarding for Safety
1. All mechanical equipment should be adequately furnished with guards that prevent access to electrical connections or moving parts (such as the belts and pulleys of a vacuum pump).
2. Each laboratory worker should inspect equipment before using it to ensure that the guards are in place and functioning.
3. Emergency shutoff devices should be provided, in addition to electrical and mechanical guarding.
G. Shielding for Safety
1. Safety shielding should be used for an operation having the potential for explosion, particularly:
· when a reaction is attempted for the first time (small quantities of reactants should be used to minimize hazards).
· when a familiar reaction is carried out on a larger than usual scale (e.g., 5-10 times more material).
· when operations are carried out under non-ambient conditions.
2. Shields must be placed so that all personnel in the area are protected from hazard.
1. Careful handling and storage procedures should be used to avoid damaging glassware.
2. Damaged items should be discarded or repaired.
3. Adequate hand protection should be used when inserting glass tubing into rubber stoppers or corks or when placing rubber tubing on glass hose connections.
4. Tubing should be fire polished or rounded and lubricated, and hands should be held close together to limit movement of glass should fracture occur.
5. The use of plastic or metal connectors should be considered.
6. Glass-blowing operation should not be attempted unless proper annealing facilities are available.
7. Vacuum-jacketed glass apparatus should be handled with extreme care to prevent implosions.
8. Equipment such as dewer flasks should be taped or shielded.
9. Only glassware designed for vacuum work should be used for that purpose.
10. Hand protection should be used when picking up broken glass (Small pieces should be swept up with a brush into a dustpan).
11. Proper instruction should be provided in the use of glass equipment designed for specialized tasks, which can represent unusual risks for the first-time user. (For example, separate funnels containing volatile solvents can develop considerable pressure during use).
I. Flammability Hazards
1. Do not use an open flame to heat a flammable liquid or to carry out a distillation under reduced pressure.
2. Use an open flame only when necessary and extinguish it when it is no longer actually needed.
3. Before lighting a flame, remove all flammable substances from the immediate area. Check all containers of flammable material in the area to ensure that they are tightly closed.
4. Notify other occupants of the laboratory in advance of lighting a flame.
5. Store flammable materials properly.
6. When volatile flammable materials may be present, use only non-sparking electrical equipment.
J. Cold Traps and Cryogenic Hazards.
1. Gloves and a face shield may be needed when preparing or using some cold baths.
2. Neither liquid nitrogen nor liquid air should be used to cool a flammable mixture in the presence of air because oxygen can condense from the air, which leads to an explosion hazard.
3. Appropriated dry gloves should be used when handling dry ice, which should be added slowly to the liquid portion of the cooling bath to avoid foaming over.
4. Avoid lowering your head into a dry ice chest; carbon dioxide is heave than air, and suffocation can result.
K. Systems under Pressure
1. Reactions should never be carried out in, nor heat applied to, an apparatus that is a closed system unless it is designed and tested to withstand pressure.
2. Pressurized apparatus should have an appropriate relief device. If the reaction cannot be opened directly to the air, an inert gas purge and bubbler system should be used to avoid pressure buildup.
L. Waste Disposal Procedures
1. Design experiments so that a minimum quantity of waste is generated.
2. Label waste containers with correct chemical names of contents.
3. Do not mix waste types. Separate halogenated solvents from non-halogenated solvents.
M. Warning Signs and Labels
1. Laboratory areas that have special or unusual hazards must be posted with warning signs.
2. All signs and symbols must be left in place and not altered unless a change to laboratory operations occurs.
3. All chemical containers should be labeled and the original label should not be removed or defaced.
4. Waste containers should be labeled as to the type of chemicals present and that the container is for waste.
N. Unattended Operations
1. Plan for unscheduled interruptions in utility services such as electricity, water, and inert gas.
2. Operations should be designed to be safe, and plans should be made to avoid hazards in case of failure.
3. Wherever possible, arrangements for routine inspection of the operation should be made and, in all cases, the laboratory lights should be left on and an appropriate sign should be placed on the door.
O. Working Alone
1. Working alone should be avoided.
2. If work must be conducted alone in the laboratory then the worker must arrange to have someone check on his/her status periodically.
P. Accident Reporting
1. All accidents involving fire, personal injury, explosion or spill must be reported.
2. Emergency telephone numbers to be called in the event of fire, accident, flood or hazardous chemical spill will be posted prominently in each laboratory.
3. These persons should be notified immediately in the event of an accident or emergency.
A. Determination of Chemical Hazard
1. Determine if the chemicals or reaction byproducts can be classified as one of the following:
2. Are any of the process chemicals or reaction byproducts an OSHA regulated substance?
3. Will perchloric acid be used in the process?
4. Can less toxic materials be used in the reaction process?
5. Is the ventilation/containment system the correct type for the materials being used and generated?
6. Does the process require interlocking of the ventilation system with a process component so failure of the vent system shuts down the process?
If yes to any of these then contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer for further information on controls and monitoring.
B. Chemical Process Hazards
1. Has the literature for the intended process be researched to identify the accidents that have occurred and their causes/prevention?
2. Will an exothermic reaction occur for any of the following:
3. For experiments being scaled up or down have the following been evaluated for impact on reaction rates?
4. Are the reactants being used endothermic compounds with low energy activation values?
5. Are amine metal oxosalts used in a process that is subject to friction, heating or impact?
6. Are pyrophoric materials used in a process that will result in oxidation or hydrolysis?
7. Are water reactive compounds used in a process that may result in contact with limited quantities of water?
8. Has the oxygen balance of the compounds been evaluated to determine explosive potential?
9. Are peroxidizable compounds used or produced which are concentrated due to heating or evaporation?
10. Has the creation of toxic off gas byproducts due to contact between reaction byproducts and reactants or process surfaces been evaluated?
11. Will flammable liquids be used such that the ignition temperature for the vapors produced can be exceeded?
12. Are the reactants or reacting byproducts highly corrosive?
13. Is spontaneous polymerization possible for the reaction process?
14. Is the wrapping material on a dewer flask compatible with the process chemical?
C. Physical Process Hazards
1. Are precautions implemented to prevent implosions of dewer flasks under vacuum?
2. Are pressure relief valves/devices available for sealed system under cryogenic cooling?
3. Are safety relief devices provided for pressurized processes?
4. Are the safety relief devices capable of operating at the pressure of concern?
5. Are the process flow lines, containers and clamps capable of withstanding process pressures?
6. Are pressure relief devices located so that personnel will not be exposed if these devices are activated?
7. For laboratory work involving continuous cooling (such as condensers) is protection provided to prevent flooding from tub failures, pump failures, blockage in flow lines, electrical failures, connection disruptions and pressure spikes?
8. Are instruments and machines adequately secured to prevent movement or sliding due to process vibration?
9. Are the support stands or tables capable of handling the equipment set-up load including process forces generated during the course of the experiment?
10. For compressed gasses, especially CO2 and corrosive gases, are the proper regulators and valve fittings used?
11. Has the use of glass and plastic equipment been minimized for pressurized or vacuum processes?
12. Has shelving been provided for sealed tubes or glass equipment used in vacuum or pressurized process systems?
13. Are pumps adequately protected from the process reactants and byproducts?
14. Are guards provided for belt driven mechanical pumps?
D. Fire and Electrical Process Hazards
1. Is ground fault circuit interruption provided?
2. Is the equipment layout such that flammable materials are segregated from ignition source?
3. Where electrical equipment is used with flammable liquids is the equipment designed to prevent heating above the quota ignition temperature of the liquid?
4. Is bonding and grounding protection provided for containers, especially large metal drums, of flammable liquids?
5. Are variable autotransformers located so as to prevent contact between the windings and flammable vapors?
6. Are heating mantles properly grounded?
7. Is heating equipment provided with automatic temperature controls and with high temperature limit switches?
8. Are non-sparking tools and motors used for work involving flammable chemicals?
9. Is electrical equipment located to minimize the potential for water or liquids being spilled onto the equipment?
10. Are drying ovens constructed so that temperature controls and heating elements are separated from their interior atmosphere?
11. If flammable materials must be refrigerated, have provisions been made to store in a refrigerator designed as explosion proof?
12. For work involving the generation of flammable vapors are all the laboratory switches explosion proof?
13. For stirring and mixing devices can these devices be remotely shut off?
14. Do all hot plates have their heating elements completely enclosed?
E. Hazardous Waste
1. Have provisions for hazardous waste disposal been addressed in the procedures?
2. Are provisions provided in the procedure to prevent the release of hazardous materials into the drain system?
3. For solvent distillations are trapping devices adequate to prevent entertainment of solvent vapors into discharged process liquids?
4. Has the minimal amount of material needed been used in this process?
5. Are methods included in the process to render the reactants and byproducts non-hazardous?
6. Are bimetallic thermometers used in place of mercury thermometers?
F. Administrative Preparation
1. Is a detailed and updated written protocol available to all personnel performing part or all of the process work?
2. For continuous run experiments are provisions made for periodically checking the experiment set-up to ensure operational safety?
3. Does the written protocol provide instructions for handling upsets and emergencies?
4. Is there a schedule for providing routine maintenance and checks of interlocks?
5. Has training in protocol been provided to all personnel performing the process?
6. Are suitable materials available for neutralizing and containing materials spilled during the process?
7. What process hazards are introduced by routine maintenance?
8. Are special detectors and alarm devices needed to warn of the generation of hazardous materials?
9. If special detectors and alarm devices are needed, are protocols and equipment available for periodic calibration and testing of these devices?
10. If special detectors and alarm devices are used, has Campus Safety Office and the Director, Office of Environment, Health and Safety been notified of what they indicate and how to respond?
11. For operations involving liquid nitrogen as a coolant have precautions been instituted to eliminate the condensation of liquid oxygen before charging a trap?