Degrees and Requirements - All Campuses
The Linfield Curriculum (General Education Requirements)
The purpose of the general education requirement called the Linfield Curriculum is to foster the development of wholly-educated persons by providing a coherent experience spanning the arts and humanities, natural sciences, and social-behavioral sciences. The Linfield Curriculum seeks to enable students to communicate effectively; appreciate literary, artistic, and historical works; be conversant with various philosophical and religious conceptions of humanity; understand the role of diversity both globally and nationally; analyze how human beings behave individually and socially; understand, formulate, and critique quantitative arguments; and comprehend the methods and accomplishments of modern science.
Grounded in the multidisciplinary spirit of the liberal arts, the Linfield Curriculum stresses wide exposure to the ways that educated individuals, be they scientists, artists, entrepreneurs, teachers, or ethicists, engage ideas, articulate choices, and assert opinions. It encourages students to cultivate intellectual and personal flexibility, pursue independent action, and engage in responsible decision-making. The Linfield Curriculum emphasizes communication and facilitates self-discovery in personal, cultural, and academic contexts. It affirms the need to understand people and societies both nationally and internationally. In short, the Linfield Curriculum encourages inquiry, analysis, and imagination, habits of mind that provide the foundation for reasoned action, wonder, and continued learning in all aspects of life.
The Linfield Curriculum consists of four major components: (1) the Inquiry Seminar; (2) Six Modes of Inquiry; (3) Diversity Studies; and (4) a Writing-Intensive Requirement. Courses contributing to the Linfield Curriculum are normally a minimum of 3 semester-credits. Any single class transferred from outside institutions must be at least 3 semester-credits or 4 quarter-credits. To encourage intellectual breadth, no student may count more than two courses from a single department toward completion of the Modes of Inquiry and Diversity Studies components of the Linfield Curriculum.
At the center of the Linfield Curriculum is the Inquiry Seminar, taken by each first-or second-year student. A collaborative investigation of a compelling subject, the Inquiry Seminar builds upon and deepens the relationship between thinking and communication, both oral and written. It models the goals of the entire Linfield Curriculum by developing the critical thinking skills common to every discipline and vital to becoming an educated person. Inquiry Seminars are taught by faculty from many fields and offer a wide range of topics varying from semester to semester. Because they provide an introduction to thinking and communicating within the academic environment, Inquiry Seminars do not satisfy requirements for majors and minors. Each student may take only one Inquiry Seminar except in cases of failure. ADP students may fulfill this requirement with INQS 126.
II. The Six Modes of Inquiry
The Modes of Inquiry offer six conceptual frames of reference central to the pursuit and construction of modern knowledge: Creative Studies; Individuals, Systems, and Societies; Natural World; Quantitative Reasoning; Ultimate Questions; and Vital Past. While resembling the traditional distributional arrangements of general education, these categories also transcend them by asking students and faculty to focus on the distinctive cross-disciplinary questions underlying each Mode of Inquiry. The Linfield Curriculum encourages intellectual breadth by introducing students to a wide variety of academic experiences.
Each student must complete at least seven approved courses, one in each of the Six Modes of Inquiry and one Upper-Division course. This Upper-Division course must be at the 300-level or above, it must be in one of the Six Modes of Inquiry (Creative Studies; Individuals, Systems, and Societies; Natural World; Quantitative Reasoning; Ultimate Questions; and Vital Past), and it must be a course from outside the student’s major department. In the case of a student with multiple majors, the Upper Division course must be from outside one of the major departments. In other words, it may not be a course which satisfies the requirements of both majors. In the case of interdisciplinary majors, the Upper Division course must be from outside the student’s field of study.
To satisfy the requirement for each Mode of Inquiry and the Upper Division course, a student must demonstrate meeting the learning objectives of that mode by choosing an assignment, or collection of assignments, to post in an online repository. The choice of these exemplars must be supported with a paragraph description. To receive credit for the Mode of Inquiry, these exemplars must be posted by the last day of finals of the semester the course is taken. For the case in which a course satisfies multiple designations, the student may submit exemplars and support for multiple designations; however, the student must choose the designation for which the course is to count and will receive credit only for that single designation.
A. Creative Studies (CS)
Courses with this designation are dedicated to the study of theory and practice in music, theatre, literature, and the visual and plastic arts. They foreground creative theory, or creative practice, or integrate the two. These courses study the making of art and how meaning – sometimes tense or contradictory – rises out of the interaction between artists, artworks, and audiences. Thus, they ask students to inquire into the ambiguities, contradictions and tensions fundamental to art-making and its aesthetic effects. Art is a primary way that human beings reflect upon their experiences and perceptions. Therefore, these courses encourage students to value lifelong engagement with the arts. Creative Studies courses are designated CS in this catalog and each semester’s registration materials.
In courses with CS designation, students will do the following:
- Explore the media, genre, craft and presentation of art.
- Investigate the complexity of defining and interpreting art.
- Examine the contexts and influences of art.
- Practice the improvisational and technical processes of art.
Courses with CS designation address the first learning outcome. In addition, they address at least one of the remaining three.
B. Individuals, Systems, and Societies (IS)
Courses in this area examine how members of societies organize themselves to satisfy individual and collective goals. They foster an understanding of the complexity and interconnectedness of individuals, systems, and societies across local, national, and/or global contexts. They also encourage students to think critically about themselves and their relationships to other individuals, institutions, and/or social systems. Individuals, Systems, and Societies courses are designated IS in this catalog and each semester’s registration materials.
Courses with IS designation are intended to provide students with opportunities to do the following:
- Understand individual, systemic, and/or social processes.
- Analyze individuals, systems, and/or societies through multiple frames of reference.
- Think critically about the ways that society affects individual behavior and/or individual behavior affects society.
- Articulate how key theoretical principles can be used to explain individual and social processes, inform public policy and/or develop practical approaches to human problems across local, regional, and/or global contexts.
Courses with IS designation address one or more of the above learning outcomes. Those courses meeting only one address the learning outcome in greater depth.
C. Natural World (NW)
Courses in this area explore science as a way of knowing about the natural world, highlighting the process of scientific inquiry and the interplay between theoretical and experimental analysis. They focus on fundamental principles that illuminate the study of our surroundings, including matter, energy, and living things. Emphasis is placed on students making connections between science and their daily lives. Natural World courses are designated NW in this catalog and each semester’s registration materials.
Courses with NW designation are intended to provide students with opportunities to learn the following:
- To use the scientific method to pursue answers to questions.
- To think critically about current scientific developments.
- To understand the historical development of scientific ideas.
- To appreciate how knowledge gained by scientists affects us.
Courses with NW designation address all of the above learning outcomes.
D. Quantitative Reasoning (QR)
Courses in this category explore contextual problems involving quantitative relationships by means of numerical, symbolic, and visual representations. These courses foster critical analysis of the uses and constraints of quantitative information and its representations. Finally, they focus on discussing models; making appropriate assumptions; and deducing consequences or making predictions. Quantitative Reasoning courses are designated QR in this catalog and each semester’s registration materials.
Courses with QR designation are designed to develop the student’s ability to do the following:
- Frame contextual questions using mathematical representation.
- Apply models to deduce consequences or make predictions.
- Communicate quantitative arguments using clear prose.
- Critique quantitative arguments with respect to assumptions, constraints, and logical coherence.
Courses with QR designation address all of the above learning outcomes.
E. Ultimate Questions (UQ)
Courses with this designation are designed to encourage students to articulate and evaluate unexamined assumptions and paradigmatic ways of acquiring knowledge through a critical analysis of fundamental beliefs, cultural practices, and competing truth claims with the aim to develop greater self-knowledge and wisdom, the ability for meaningful dialogue, social responsibility and understanding, and an appreciation for questions that lead to deeper insights into our actions and the reasons for them. While this mode of inquiry strongly emphasizes an assessment of cognitive systems and symbols, such courses also explore metaphors and language that penetrate to pre-cognitive or post-cognitive levels of people’s action (ethics) and ways of belonging (sociology) often associated with the sacred. Ultimate Questions courses are designated UQ in this catalog and each semester’s registration materials.
In courses with UQ designation, students will learn and demonstrate growth from among the following:
- Articulating and evaluating unexamined assumptions and paradigmatic ways of acquiring knowledge.
- Analyzing critically fundamental beliefs, cultural practices, and competing truth claims.
- Developing greater self-knowledge and wisdom, the ability for meaningful dialogue, social responsibility and understanding.
- Appreciating questions that lead to deeper insights into our actions and the reasons for them.
- Exploring pre-cognitive and post-cognitive levels of people’s action (ethics) and ways of belonging (sociology) often associated with the sacred.
Recognizing that other modes of inquiry engage many of these issues, in an Ultimate Questions course, these topics and method lie at the center of the inquiry rather than arising as implications drawn from work in other modes of inquiry. All courses with UQ designation address the first learning outcome. In addition, they address at least one of the remaining four.
F. Vital Past (VP)
Courses in this mode of inquiry explore the human past and offer an opportunity to reflect on the continuities, change, and diversity in human experience across time. They investigate social, cultural, political, and other dimensions of human historical experience. They introduce students to various methods that scholars in different disciplines have developed to study the human past. These courses also encourage students to think critically about the interconnections between past and present. Vital Past courses are designated VP in this catalog and each semester’s registration materials.
Students who complete a course with VP designation should do the following:
- Identify, analyze, and contextualize primary sources.
- Identify and critique secondary, scholarly arguments about the past.
- Develop and defend an analytical or interpretive argument about the past.
- Recognize that differences separate people past and present, though all people share a common humanity.
- Evaluate the reliability of evidence about the past.
Courses with VP designation will fulfill many, but not necessarily all, of the learning outcomes.
III. Diversity Studies
An escalating interconnectedness marks the society into which Linfield students will graduate. Within our own national borders, heightened sensitivity to the diversity of perspectives, experiences, and aspirations that shape U.S. culture grounds the successful operations of democracy and facilitates the exercise of effective citizenship. The emergence of women into every phase of public life has also accelerated the pace of cultural change. These developments challenge all learners to seek new sources of knowledge and question established views on what constitutes knowledge.
Diversity Studies within the Linfield Curriculum is meant to ensure that all students examine the cultural and individual differences produced by such factors as gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, and sexual orientation. The college thus affirms the benefits of mutual tolerance and civil discussion fostered by a deepened understanding of and respect for human complexity.
Students must take two courses which address facets of cultural diversity such as gender, race, national or geopolitical allegiance, religion, sexual orientation, and cultural mores. One of the two required courses must address Global Pluralisms (GP), and one must explore U.S. Pluralisms (US). This requirement applies to all students regardless of citizenship. It is not met by classes in modern language instruction, though upper division culture classes offered by the Modern Languages Department may satisfy Global Pluralisms. Courses in Diversity Studies may, but are not mandated to, belong to any of the Modes of Inquiry. Students may propose experiential learning projects to satisfy half of this requirement; such projects must receive prior approval from the Curriculum Committee.
To satisfy the requirement for each diversity designation (GP, US), a student must demonstrate meeting the learning objectives of that designation by choosing an assignment, or collection of assignments, to post in an online repository. In the case of an experiential learning opportunity, the exemplar will be a summary report. The choice of these exemplars must be supported with a paragraph description. To receive credit for each diversity designation, these exemplars must be posted by the last day of finals of the semester the course is taken. For the case in which a course satisfies multiple designations, the student may submit exemplars and support for multiple designations; however, the student must choose the designation for which the course is to count and will receive credit only for that single designation.
A. Global Pluralisms (GP)
Courses with this designation focus students’ attention beyond their own national boundaries. The use of analytical frameworks challenges students to address and understand the social, political, ethical, cultural, and/or policy discourses of other countries from a global perspective. These courses also include a consideration of multicultural perspectives within other countries. Curricular offerings focusing on the history or culture of a given nation, group, or region may meet this requirement by including a comparative component for the course. This focus may include comparisons between or among countries, as well as comparisons of different time periods. Through the process of examining Global Pluralisms, students prepare for their participation and citizenship in an increasingly diverse world. Global Pluralisms courses are designated GP in this catalog and in each semester’s registration materials.
In courses with GP designation, students will have opportunities to do the following:
- Develop a better understanding of the issues of identity, politics, culture, history, health care, and/or economics in a context of a culture other than that of the United States.
- Interrogate issues of colonialism, dominance, hegemony, and control by examining the social, economic, business, and/or political relationships that formerly colonized countries share with their imperial sites.
- Reflect upon the relationship that two or more countries share with each other through a comparative analysis of literature, the arts, politics, and/or social movements.
- Examine the impact of globalization and interdependence of cultures and economies on the lives of individuals.
Courses with GP designation address at least one of the above learning outcomes.
B. U.S. Pluralisms (US)
Courses with this designation explore the diverse experiences among those living in the United States. Students pursue inquiry into the varied dimensions of human diversity such as age, disability, ethnicity, gender, language, politics, race, religion, sexual orientation, and/or social class. These courses examine how the dominant traditions of American culture have marginalized the voices of those who have typically fallen outside those traditions, using analytical frameworks, or discussion that addresses the social, political, ethical, cultural, philosophical, and/or policy discourses among those groups. Through the process of examining U.S. Pluralisms, students prepare for their participation and citizenship in an increasingly diverse society. U.S. Pluralism courses are designated US in this catalog and each semester’s registration materials.
In courses with US designation, students will have opportunities to do the following:
- Develop a better understanding of a cross-section of issues related to age, disability, ethnicity, gender, language, politics, race, religion, sexual orientation, and/or social class.
- Interrogate the historical, socio-cultural, and/or aesthetic grounding of marginality and its relationship to power and modes of domination through the critical examination of these discourses.
- Explore the social, cultural, and/or economic inequalities addressed in a broader socio-historic context, including issues of social justice, privilege, health care, and/or power.
- Consider the repercussions of historic and contemporary ideas of “The United States” and one’s right to citizenship.
Courses with US designation address at least one of the above learning outcomes.
Writing-Intensive Course(s) in the Major (MWI)
In addition to the Inquiry Seminar, all students must complete the approved upper-division Writing-Intensive class, or sequence of classes, designated for their respective majors by their home departments. This requirement serves to enhance students’ mastery of the formats, conventions, and habits of mind appropriate to the major’s disciplinary investigations. Beyond these, the college extends students opportunities to perfect their writing skills in many courses offered across the curriculum, designated WI in departmental listings.