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Pre-Professional Advising

Pre-Law

John McKeegan, Advisor to the President & General Counsel
Melrose 104, 503-883-2202, jmckeeg@linfield.edu

Although there is no formal pre-law curriculum at Linfield (because this is not recommended by law schools), the college offers rigorous academic preparation for legal education. In addition to offering law-related courses (see below), Linfield offers pre-law students a broad and inclusive liberal arts education. Our graduates who have gone on to law school report that their Linfield experience helped prepare them for law school and that they have a solid basis upon which to undertake the rigorous study of law at the graduate level.

There is no required major for law school.

Law schools accept majors from all departments. Students should find a major they enjoy and do well at it. Overall grade point average (GPA) and academic success are more important parts of the law school application than particular major. Law schools are looking for students who excel in intense undergraduate programs, proving that they can be successful in the rigors of law school.

There is no prerequisite coursework for law school.

Students should plan on taking courses that are challenging and help them to hone writing skills and improve reading comprehension. They need strong analytical reasoning, problem solving abilities, and oral presentation to succeed in law school.

Linfield students may wish to consider taking some of the following courses to develop these skills and to learn more about the field of law:

BUSN 340 Business Law I
BUSN 440 Business Law II
ECON 210 Principles of Economics
ECON 352 Economics of Law
MSCM 337/POLS 337 Mass Media Law and Ethics
PHIL 190 Logic
PHIL 360 Philosophy of Law
PHIL 365 Social and Political Philosophy Classics
POLS 201 American Politics
POLS 225 Study of Law
POLS/RELS 315 Politics and Religion
POLS 320 Law, Rights and Justice
POLS 335 Topics in Public Policy
TCCA 140 Public Speaking
TCCA 147 Debate Practicum
TCCA 340 Persuasion and Social Influence
TCCA 355 Topics in U.S. Public Address

Advising Resources for Pre-Law Students

Students interested in pursuing law school after graduation from Linfield should visit the Office of Academic Advising (Walker 104), where we maintain information regarding law schools, the application process, and the legal profession. For additional information, see the current U.S. Guide to Law Schools, published annually in October and prepared by the Law School Admission Council and the Association of American Law Schools. This book, available in the Office of Academic Advising, includes material on the law and lawyers, pre-law preparation, application to law schools, and the study of law, along with information on most American law schools.

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Pre-Medical

Anne Kruchten, Biology Faculty
Murdock 212; akrucht@linfield.edu

Linfield, like most institutions, does not offer a "pre-med" major. Students interested in applying to medical school may choose any of the majors offered by the college. The majority of students intending to go to medical school will major in a science, but this is not required by medical schools. However, it is important to keep in mind that the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is required for entrance to all allopathic and osteopathic medical schools, and high quality performance on this test requires advanced course work in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics as well as coursework in Sociology and Psychology. Major changes to the MCAT will affect students who plan to take the test in 2015. It is imperative that students discuss these changes with the Pre-medical Coordinator during their first year on campus.

Guidelines for First-Year Students:

FALL SEMESTER:

  • Attend the Pre-Medicine Information Night held early in the fall semester, or make an appointment with Dr. Anne Kruchten, Coordinator of the Pre-Medicine Program.
  • Enroll in any INQS 125
  • Students should prepare to take the year-long sequences of General Chemistry and Principles of Biology at the beginning of their academic careers, as these are prerequisites for upper division courses and the MCAT exam. Students should consult with their academic advisors to determine potential options for enrollment:
    • Students with excellent high school science and math preparation may elect to enroll in both the General Chemistry and Principles of Biology sequences during their first year.
    • Students may also elect to take one of the sequences during the first year and the other sequence during the second year. A student should consider his or her high school math and science preparation and any college placement information during a discussion with the academic advisor to make this decision.
  • Mathematics - Pre-Med students must complete mathematics courses through MATH 180: Calculus II. Review the math placement form and continue in the appropriate mathematics course. Complete schedule with LC courses or courses to explore potential majors and/or minors.

SPRING SEMESTER:

  • Enroll in any INQS (if not completed in the Fall)
  • Continue science course sequence
  • Continue math course sequence
  • Complete schedule with LC courses or courses to explore potential majors and/or minors.
  • After establishing good study habits and a successful academic foundation, begin focusing on a balance between academics and community involvement. In particular, medical schools look for a demonstrated long-term commitment to service of others (which can take a variety of forms- contact Anne Kruchten with questions).

National requirements for entrance into medical school are changing:
For this reason, it is important to keep in contact with the Pre-Med Coordinator to be informed of updates and receive helpful advice. It is the responsibility of students to investigate the requirements of the specific medical schools to which they intend to apply. These requirements are listed in the latest edition of Medical Schools Admissions Requirements (Nicholson Library Ref. R 745.A8). In general, most schools require the following as a minimum:

  • PHYS 210-211: Introduction to Mechanics and Introduction to Electromagnetism
  • BIOL 210-211: Principles of Biology
  • MATH: Most medical school require one year of college-level math (this requirement varies and many schools require calculus). Calculus (MATH 170-180) is a pre-requisite at Linfield for PHYS 210-211. Statistics (MATH 140) is recommended in addition to one year of college-level math
  • CHEM 210-211: General Chemistry
  • CHEM 321-322: Organic Chemistry
  • Completion of the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT)
  • A Bachelor's degree

Note: All Math and Science courses taken must be ones that apply for majors in that field. Always check with the Registrar before enrolling in courses at other institutions to ensure credits will transfer appropriately.

Admission to medical school is competitive.

In addition to the above listed courses, competitive applicants should:

  • Meet with the Coordinator of the Pre-Med Program as early as possible, preferably in the first year
  • Make time for volunteer experience in health care that will expose them to various aspects of the health profession and allow them to work with various populations. Experience with indigent peoples, inner city populations, or people in developing countries are especially recommended
  • Make arrangements to shadow a health-care professional for a day or longer in order to experience the field first hand
  • Find opportunities for research experience
  • Stay abreast of health care issues by reading and learning about national and local debates about such issues as HMOs, abortion, and physician-assisted suicide. When traveling, make every effort to learn about health care issues in other countries
  • Develop a long-range plan for preparing for the MCAT. Information regarding the MCAT is available in the Career Center and from the Coordinator of the Pre-Med program.
  • Log on to the website of the American Association of Medical Colleges – www.aamc.org - and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine - http://www.aacom.org - for valuable information about medical school admissions
  • Join the Pre-med Club to learn more about this career path.

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Pre-Nursing

Dalton Higginbottom, Pre-Nursing Advisor
Walker 124, 503-883-2393, dhigginb@linfield.edu

Pre-requisites for Nursing at Linfield College:

Pre-requisites must be completed before transferring to the Linfield College Nursing program on the Portland Campus.

  1. One year of lab science: Full year with lab (NW)
    • General Chemistry: CHEM 210-211 or
    • Principles of Biology: BIOL 210-211
  2. Anatomy: BIOL 212 with lab (NW): Not available for first semester freshman - offered fall & spring
  3. Physiology: BIOL 213 with lab (NW): Prerequisite BIOL 212 (NW) - offered fall and spring
  4. Microbiology: One course with lab
    • BIOL 275 - Introduction to Microbiology (prerequisite BIOL 210-211 or CHEM 210-211) - offered fall and spring
    • BIOL 361 General Microbiology (prerequisite BIOL 210-211 andCHEM 210)
  5. Nutrition: HHPA 280 (NW) – offered fall, spring, summer (online).
  6. Life Span Developmental Psychology: PSYC 155 (IS) (no prerequisite) - offered fall, spring & summer
  7. Statistics: MATH 140 (QR) – One course: Not available for first semester freshman - offered fall, spring, summer & January Term (pre-requisite: HS algebra I, II and Geometry or equivalent).
  8. Inquiry Seminar: INQS 125offered fall, spring & January Term

Linfield Curriculum:

BSN students are required to meet LC requirements as any other Linfield student. Pre-nursing students will receive an IS, NW and a QR through their prerequisites. Students can complete the LC requirements once on the Portland campus by taking DCE or courses or transferring credit from other area colleges. Due to the demands of the nursing curriculum, students are encouraged to complete LCs prior to enrolling at the Portland campus.

  1. Modes of Inquiry (at least 3 credits in each mode)
    • Natural world (NW) – met by biology/chemistry/nutrition
    • Vital Past (VP)
    • Ultimate Questions (UQ)
    • Individuals, systems and society (IS) – met by developmental psychology
    • Creative Studies (CS)
    • Quantitative Reasoning (QR) – met by statistics
  2. Upper Division – must be from one of the six modes of inquiry
  3. Pluralisms (at least 3 credits from each pluralism)
    • US Pluralisms (US)
    • Global Pluralisms (GP)

Paracurricular:

3 credits required

  • Colloquium (for first year students)- 1 credit
  • Pre-nursing seminar – 1credit (optional)

Nursing Transfer Eligibility:

  • At Time of Application: Students must maintain a 3.00 GPA in their complete prerequisite courses with a C or better in each of those prerequisite courses.
  • Before starting in the nursing program (by July 10 for Fall entry and Jan 15 for Spring Entry): Students must maintain a 3.00 GPA in all their prerequisite courses with a C or better in each of those prerequisite courses.
  • Residency status: Students must complete at least 30 credits of course work at Linfield to be considered a Resident Linfield student.
  • Degree progress: Students must complete 62 transferable credits before starting in the Nursing program on the Portland campus.
  • Leave of Absence: Leave of absences will not be permitted for the sole purpose of completing nursing pre-requisite classes at another institution except in special circumstances and approved by petition.
  • All Linfield students must maintain a GPA of 2.0 or above to graduate.

Advise for First-Year Pre-Nursing Students to do the Following:

FALL SEMESTER:

  • Attend Pre-Nursing information session during the first week of the semester (information will be sent through Colloquium)
  • Meet with Janet Peterson, Pre-Nursing Advisor, in fall semester before spring registration
  • Consider enrolling in BIOL 210, BIOL 210L or CHEM 210, CHEM 210L – review the advising information for these courses.
  • INQS 125 (can be taken in spring as well) - If the student is not ready for biology or chemistry, they should enroll in an INQS in the Fall.
  • Students should also consider 1-2 of the following courses
    • INQS 125: Inquiry Seminar
    • HHPA 280: Nutrition
    • PSYC 155: Lifespan Development Psychology
  • 1- 2 Linfield Curriculum courses.
  • Attend Pre-Nursing Club meetings throughout the semester

SPRING SEMESTER:

Enroll in:

  • Next course in general science sequence
    If not enrolled in any science sequence in fall, consider enrolling in BIOL 212: Human Anatomy with lab
  • INQS (if not completed in the fall semester)
  • Additional Nursing Prerequisite courses (listed above)
  • 1- 2 Linfield Curriculum courses.
  • Attend Pre-Nursing Club meetings throughout the semester
  • Meet with Janet Peterson, Pre-Nursing Advisor, during spring semester before registration

Contact Dalton Higginbottom (dhigginb@linfield.edu) for more information about completing the nursing pre-requisites at Linfield College.

Additional Information about pre-nursing at:

http://www.linfield.edu/advising/pre-professional-programs/pre-nursing.html

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Pre-Physical Therapy

Dr. Janet Peterson, Pre-PT Advisor
Walker 104, 503-883-2255, japeters@linfield.edu

Pre-physical therapy is not a major at Linfield. Most Linfield students interested in physical therapy are exercise science, biology or general science majors, but students may pursue any major they wish as long as they complete the requirements for the physical therapy graduate programs to which they will apply. In addition, any faculty member can be their academic advisor during the initial stages of a pre-physical therapy program.

Admissions policies to physical therapy graduate programs are based primarily on coursework in biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and psychology. Because of limited space, graduate schools are very selective and take only students with excellent grades in basic science courses. In addition, most programs require students to take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and require observation hours.

This information affects prospective physical therapy students in two ways: first, they need to do well in basic science classes, and second, there is no single undergraduate departmental major that is appropriate for them in the sense that it provides pre-professional training in a field that is equally interesting to all students. (See also "Guidelines for Students Interested in Physical Therapy Careers" below or check the website for the APTA - www.APTA.org)

Students who intend to apply for admission into physical therapy programs must complete some work-related or internship experience in a physical therapy setting. All physical therapy programs require anywhere from a minimum of 50 to 300+ hours of practical experience, some of which should appear as earned credit on your transcripts. Students need to check with individual schools for each institution's prerequisites.

The following is a list of prerequisites for OR and WA Physical Therapy schools:

Check individual school websites for specific requirements.

Topic Linfield Courses PNW School Required Courses
EW UW Pac UPS
Human Anatomy BIOL 212 1 1 1 1
Human Physiology BIOL 213 1 1 1 4
Biology BIOL 210 (& 211) 2 2 2 1
Upper division human biology/ human and animal physiology BIOL 270 (genetics), 361 (micro), 390 (vert phys), 420 (Dev), 432 (Immun) HHPA 342 or 440 1 (ex/vert phys) 1 (other) NA NA 1 (ex phys)
General Chemistry CHEM 210 & 211 2 2 2 2
Physics PHYS 115 & 116 2 2 (calc not req) 2 2
Statistics MATH 140 1 1 1 1
Freshman English INQS NA NA 1-2 NA
Advanced English comp Writing Intensive Course HHPA 441(Senior Seminar) NA NA 1-2 NA
Medical Terminology   NA NA NA 1
Psyc/Anth/Soc or other humanities PSYC 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, POLS, SOAN, ECON, ENGL or HIST. 2 (psych/anth or soc) 2 psych/anth or soc) 1 (psyc 101) 1 (psyc) 4 (nonpsyc) Psyc 181 + 1 (psyc)
Cumulative GPA   3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Perquisite or science GPA   3.0 (prereq) 3.0 & C or better (prereq) C or better C or better*
GRE Required   Yes (by Dec 31) Yes No Yes
Observation hours   >75 200-500 >100 >50

EW-Eastern Washington; UW- University of Washington; Pac- Pacific University; UPS- University of Puget Sound

*B or better in Anatomy and Physics

Guidelines for Students Interested in Physical Therapy Careers

The following is a list of recommend steps to take to better prepare students for physical therapy school. Have students review this information and follow-up when necessary. If students would like more information about physical therapy, have them talk with Dr. Janet Peterson or their individual major advisor about the next steps to take.

1. If students have not already done so, try to arrange a visit with a physical therapist in your community.

2. Are you an Oregon resident?

A. Yes, they are an Oregon resident: There is no publicly-supported physical therapy training program in the state of Oregon. There is a private program at Pacific University in Forest Grove. Contact them for the latest information about requirements for entry into their program.

Office of Admissions for Professional Programs http://www.pt.pacificu.edu
Pacific University
2043 College Way
Forest Grove, Oregon 97116 Phone: (503) 352-2900 or (800) 933-9308

In addition, be aware that Oregon belongs to an exchange program with 13 other western states that enables students to enroll in out-of-state professional programs when those fields of study are not available at public institutions in their home state. Because of this, Oregon residents are eligible for admission to many other schools of physical therapy (currently 16) in states such as Washington, California, Montana, Utah, Colorado, etc. The exchange program is called the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). Write or call WICHE for their latest brochure explaining the program and listing the participating schools:

WICHE Student Exchange Program (website: http://www.wiche.edu)
P.O. Box 9752
Boulder, Colorado 80301-9752 Phone: (303) 541-0214

B. No, they are not an Oregon Resident: Contact the American Physical Therapy Association for a listing of physical therapy programs in your state.

American Physical Therapy Association (website: http://www.APTA.org)
1111 N. Fairfax St.
Alexandria, VA 22314-1488 Phone: (703) 684-2782 or (800)999-2782

3. Take the General Chemistry placement test to determine if they are prepared to enroll in General Chemistry. If not qualified, take the steps recommended by the Chemistry department to prepare yourself for General Chemistry.

All physical therapy schools require a year-long General Chemistry course, with lab. Courses designed for non-science majors are not acceptable. The best preparation for college chemistry is a strong background in high school chemistry and mathematics at the College Algebra level. Be realistic about your interests and abilities. Did you earn A's and high B's in math and chemistry in high school? If so, then you should be successful in college chemistry. If you earned low B's or C's you should strengthen your math skills with a college algebra or pre-calculus course taken concurrently with or before enrolling in General Chemistry.

4. In your freshman year sign up for either General Chemistry (if you qualify) or Principles of Biology (if you qualify). Remember, you will need to do well in your sciences to be considered for entry to physical therapy school!

5. Discuss your major options with your faculty advisor and Janet Peterson. Any major will work for physical therapy as long as you meet all of the prerequisites to get into the program of your choice. The exercise science major at Linfield is an increasingly popular choice for students who wish to pursue graduate studies in physical therapy. Pre-physical therapy students also find several of the courses in the athletic training curriculum very helpful. A few pre-physical therapy students select athletic training as a major, though it is important to note that this program is restricted in the number of students it accepts. (See guidelines for athletic training majors.).

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Physician Assistant

Janet Peterson
Walker 104, 503-883-2255, japeters@linfield.edu

Physician Assistants (PAs) are trained to provide diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventative healthcare measures under the direction of a physician. They are health professionals who practice medicine as members of a team with their supervising physicians. PA's deliver a broad range of medical and surgical services to diverse populations in rural and urban settings. As part of their comprehensive responsibilities, PA's conduct physical exams, diagnose and treat illnesses, order and interpret tests, counsel on preventive health care, assist in surgery, and prescribe medications. They should not be confused with medical assistants, who perform routine clinical and clerical tasks. PA's work in almost all settings that physicians practice in - family practice, surgical, emergency medicine, etc.

For more information visit: http://explorehealthcareers.org/en/Career/19/Physician_Assistant

http://www.aapa.org/index.php

Becoming a Physician Assistant

1. Central Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA).

https://portal.caspaonline.org/

Web-based application service that will allow students to apply to any number of participating PA educational programs across the country by completing a single application.

2. American Academy of Physician Assistants

http://www.aapa.org/

An On-line PA Programs Directory, published by the PAEA, lists contact information, admission deadlines, entrance requirements, tuition fees, financial aid, clinical affiliations, and other information for every member program. In General, a good place for PA education information.

3. Allied Health Professions Admission Test (AHPAT).

http://www.pearsonassessments.com/pai/

Information on the entrance exam often required by PA programs.

Students considering a career in physician assistant studies must complete a significant amount of prerequisite coursework and may also need to sit for the Graduate Record Exam (GRE). Prerequisite coursework differs throughout the accredited physician assistant schools within the United States. Please review detailed information for each school prior to applying to ensure you have completed the appropriate courses.

For information on registering, preparing and sitting for the GRE visit: http://www.ets.org/gre/

Sample PA Programs in Oregon

Oregon Health and Science University
Physician Assistant Program
3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, GH219
Portland, OR 97239
(503) 494-1484
Email: paprgm@ohsu.edu
Website: http://www.ohsu.edu/pa/
Credentials Awarded: M CASPA Participating Program
Pacific University
Physician Assistant Program School of Physician Assistant Studies
222 SE 8th Avenue, Suite 551
Hillsboro, OR 97123
(503) 352-7272
Email: pa@pacificu.edu
Website: http://www.pacificu.edu/pa/
Credentials Awarded: M CASPA Participating Program

Required Prerequisite Courses from the OHSU Program

  • Minimum GPA 2.8 (average for class of 2011= 3.51)
  • 2000 hours of clinical care
  • 40 quarter-hour or 30 semester-hour credits of natural science coursework appropriate to health science majors
  • One year Cell or General Biology with Lab
  • One year General or Inorganic Chemistry with Lab
  • Microbiology with Lab
  • Human Anatomy and Physiology with Lab
  • General or Developmental Psychology
  • Statistics
  • Recommended: Organic Chemistry, Genetics, Pathophysiology, Biochemistry, other upper division natural science coursework, other courses which may be beneficial to a future health care provider such as epidemiology, medical terminology, etc.

Required Prerequisite Courses from the Pacific Program

  • Minimum GPA 2.75
  • 1000 hours of clinical care
  • Human Anatomy and Physiology with Labs
  • Microbiology or Bacteriology (Lab not required)
  • Organic or Biochemistry (Lab not required)
  • General Chemistry with Lab
  • Statistic
  • General Psychology or Sociology
  • Recommended: Pharmacology, Medical Terminology, Spanish, Abnormal Psychology, Development Psychology, Aging and Disabilities, Public Health, Technical Writing, Communications.

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Nutrition, Optometry, Occupational Therapy

Janet Peterson, DrPH
Interim Director of Academic Advising
Associate Professor, Health and Human Performance
Walker 104, 503-883-2255, japeters@linfield.edu

Pre-Veterinary

J. Christopher Gaiser, Ph.D.
Professor, Biology
Murdock 231, 503-883-2537, cgaiser@linfield.edu

Pre-Dentistry

John Syring, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Biology
Murdock 206, 503-883-2466, jsyring@linfield.edu

Pre-Pharmacy

Michael Roberts, Ph.D.
Professor, Biology
Murdock 216, 503-883-2465, mrobert@linfield.edu

Health Education

Dawn Graff-Haight, Ph.D.
Professor, Health and Human Performance
HHPA 219, 503-883-2641, dghaight@linfield.edu

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